Branches/Areas of Agriculture
Here are the main Branches of Agriculture;
- Crop Science.
- Animal science.
- Soil science.
- Forestry and wildlife.
- Veterinary medicine.
- Agricultural engineering.
- Agricultural education.
- Agricultural economics.
- Agricultural extension.
Crop Science: This is the study of how crops are grown and used by man and animals. It gives the farmer the knowledge of how crops are grown, from planting to harvesting and storage. The farmer uses this knowledge to take care of the crops. One who studies crop science is called a crop scientist. Areas of crop science include plant breeding, Agronomy, Pathology, Entomology.
Animal Science: Animal science deals with the study of the production of farm animals which are called livestock. These farm animals include sheep, poultry, cows, sheep, fish, pigs, rabbits, etc. Farm animals are of great importance to any economy because they supply milk, meat, and egg which are important protein sources, while their hides and skin are used to make clothes, leather, etc. One who studies animal science is called an animal scientist.
Soil Science: The study of the soil in which crops grow is called soil science. It gives the farmer the knowledge of the different types of soils that exist, their suitability for different crops, and how to prepare the soil so that crops will grow easily and give high yields.One who studies soil science is called a soil scientist.
Horticulture: Horticulture deals with the growing of garden crops like fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. The practice of horticulture includes market gardening, and commercial vegetable and fruit production, for sale at large urban markets, for export, or for canning.One who studies horticulture is called a horticulturist.
Fishery: The activities involved in the production of fish and other aquatic animals is called fishery. Other aquatic animals include shrimps, lobsters, prawns, crabs, periwinkles, oysters, etc. Fish production is an important part of any economy because fish, produced locally, is exported to other countries for foreign exchange.
Forestry and Wild-Life: Forestry is the study and management of forests and forest resources. Forests provide timber which is used to make furniture and construct buildings. They also provide food in the form of meat from wild animals, fruits, vegetables, nuts, etc. Medicinal herbs are also found in forests.
Veterinary Medicine: The study and control of pests and diseases of livestock is called veterinary medicine. It is a field in agriculture that involves the treatment of farm animals, which includes vaccination, immunization, and quarantine programs. The scientist who studies veterinary medicine is called a veterinary doctor. Livestock and pets like cows, dogs, cats, sheep, etc, are treated by theveterinary doctor.
Agricultural Engineering: Agricultural engineering involves designing, construction and maintenance, and operation of farm machines and equipment. Branches of agricultural engineering include farm power, soil and water engineering, agricultural product processing, farm structures, and environmental control. One who specializes in this area is called an agriculture engineer.
Agricultural Economics: Agriculture economics involves the running of the farm as a profitable enterprise, that makes use of all resources. It deals with the production, distribution, and consumption marketing ofagricultural products and services. One who studies agricultural economics is called an agricultural economist.
Agricultural Extension: Agricultural extension is concerned with educating the farmer on the latest agricultural practices, scientific research findings, and the latest innovations in the field. Agricultural extension workers are the officers who educate farmers.
JSCE Agricultural Science 2019 Past Question