Quiz 8 of 25

2014 Geography WAEC Theory Past Questions CBTdrsoji

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(a) Calculation for the new map outline
The old scale = 1:50,000
The new scale = 1:25,000

To determine the number of times = old scale / new scale
= 50,000/ 25,000  = 2
Therefore, we are to enlarge the mapped area ABCD to twice of its original size.

Formula for map enlargement: Scale will reduce
Size will increase

The length measured = 8cm
New (enlarged) length = 8cm × 2 = 16cm

The breadth measured = 8cm
New (enlarged) length = 8cm × 2 = 16cm

(b)

(c) Likely occupations of the people who live in the area enclosed by ABCD

i. Farming due to the presence of scattered cultivation
ii. Transportation due to the presence of road and river
iii. Construction workers due to the presence of settlements
iv. Fishing (Fishermen) due to the presence of river
v. Teaching due to the presence of schools
vi. Trading due to the presence of market

(d) Land use types in the mapped area
i. Agricultural land use due to the presence of scattered cultivation
ii. Religious land use due to the presence of churches
iii. Educational land use due to the presence of schools
iv. Transportation land use due to the presence of roads
v. Residential land use due to the presence of settlements

(b) Advantages of Multiple bar graph
i. It makes comparison easier
ii. It’s very easy to construct
iii. It is easy to understand
iv. It gives clarity as to the quantities of production

 

 

(a) Latitude is an imaginary line running from east to west on the Earth’s surface. Also, it is an angular distance of a point on the earth’s surface measured in degrees north or south of the Equator.

(b) Similarities between lines of longitudes and latitudes;
I. both are imaginary lines
II. both lines contain Great Circles
III. both are measured in degrees
IV. both lines are used to calculate distances of places

(c) Differences between lines of longitudes and latitudes;
I. Lines of longitudes are called meridians while lines of latitudes are called parallels
II. Longitude is used in calculating time while latitude is used in measuring the distance between places
III. Lines of longitudes converge at the poles while lines of latitude are parallel to each other and never meet
IV. All lines of longitudes are Great Circles while the Equator is the only Great circle among lines of latitude
V. Longitudes runs from North to South while Latitudes runs from East to West
VI. Longitudes are measured in degrees East and West while Latitudes are measured in degrees North and South

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Climate is the average weather condition of a place taken over a long period of years usually between 30 to 40 years

(b) Influence of latitude on Temperature:
Due to the earth’s inclination, the midday sun is almost overhead within the tropics but the sun’s rays reach the Earth at an angle outside the tropics. Temperature thus diminishes from equatorial regions to the poles. This is illustrated in the diagram below. It shows two bands of rays coming from the sun to different latitudes on the equatorial latitudes on surface E. Band R2 falls obliquely over the temperature latitudes on surface T. R1 travels through a shorter distance and its concentrated solar insolation heats up a smaller surface area; temperature is thus high. On the other hand, R2 travels through a longer distance and much of its heat is absorbed by clouds, water vapour, and dust particles. Its oblique ray has to heat up a large area; temperature is therefore low.

The diagram above shows the effect of latitude on solar insolation. This shows why temperatures are lower in higher altitudes than in the tropics.

Description of Chemically formed sedimentary rocks
(a) Mode of formation: The main minerals for the formation may be from winds, glaciers, or streams. This type of sedimentary rock is derived from the accumulation of materials derived from other rocks over a long period of time. These materials are formed through chemical precipitation from other rock solutions. Over time, these precipitated rocks are accumulated and cemented in layers or strata and become hardened to form chemically formed sedimentary rocks. These strata vary in thickness.

(b) Examples: These are; Sodium Chloride (common salt), nitrates, gypsum or calcium sulphate, potash, etc.

(c) Importance:
i. source of minerals e.g Gypsum, Potash, Nitrates, etc
ii. Formation of fertile soil e.g potash, nitrates
iii. Raw materials for industries e.g Gypsum

 

Occurrence of Drought as an environmental hazard
(a) Causes:
I. Drought is mainly caused by lack of rainfall
ii. Presence of high daily temperature
iii. High rate of evapo-transpiration
iv. Lack of cloud cover and low humidity
v. Sudden changes in climate of an area

(b) Areas affected: The Sahara Desert (This covered; Northern Nigeria, Senegambia, Northern Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Somalia, Niger republic, Northern Benin republic

(c) Effects:
I. Drought disturbs plant’s life
ii. Surface streams or rivers may dry up
iii. It affects human beings and livestock
iv. It requires the planting of low moisture requirement crops
v.  It may lead to migration of man and animals

(d) Control:
I.  Afforestation: the planting of trees does encourage the formation of rain
ii. Irrigation: the artificial application of water to soil encourages the growth of plants
iii. Planting of cover crops does reduce evaporation and retain water in the soil
iv. Avoidance of over grazing

 

(a) Processes of river erosion are; Hydraulic action, Corrasion, Attrition, and Solution

(bi) Characteristics of Upper Course of a river;
i. It marks the beginning or source of a river
ii. It has steep slopes
iii. It occurs in Highland areas
iv. Dominant work is vertical erosion
v. There is the formation of features like a gorge, waterfall, river capture, etc.

(bii)  Characteristics of Middle Course of a river;
i. Lateral erosion is dominant
ii. Valleys are widened
iii. There is increased load of a river
iv. Dominant work is the transportation of materials or sediments
iv. There is the formation of features like braided meanders, river cliffs, etc.

(biii)  Characteristics of Lower Course of a river;
i. Main work is the deposition of materials or sediments
ii. There is increased volume of rivers from addition by tributaries
iii. The gradient is gentle and the speed of the river is very low
iv. There is the formation of features like Delta, Flood plains, Ox-bow lake

(a) Description of a Water-table
Water which seeps through the ground moves downward under the force of gravity until it reaches an impermeable layer of rock through which it cannot pass. If there is no ready outlet for the groundwater in the form of a spring, the water accumulates above the impermeable layer and saturates the rock. The permeable rock in which the water is stored is known as the Aquifer. The surface of the saturated area is called the Water-table.

The depth of the water-table varies greatly according to relief and to the type of rocks. The water-table is far below the surface of hilltops but is close to the surface in valleys and flat low-lying areas where it may cause waterlogging and swampy conditions. The depth of the water-table also varies greatly with the seasons. When plenty of rain is available to augment groundwater supplies the water-table may rise, but in dry periods, no new supplies are available, and the water-table is lowered as groundwater is lost through sea pages and springs

The diagram above is the diagram of Groundwater table.

(b) Factors that influence the depth of water-table are;
(i) relief of the area
(ii) types of rock
(iii) season
(iv) presence of spring
The depth of the water-table varies greatly according to relief and to the type of rocks. The water-table is far below the surface of hilltops but is close to the surface in valleys and flat low-lying areas where it may cause waterlogging and swampy conditions. The depth of the water-table also varies greatly with the seasons. When plenty of rain is available to augment groundwater supplies the water-table may rise, but in dry periods, no new supplies are available, and the water-table is lowered as groundwater is lost through sea pages and springs

(a) Factor that accounted for the world’s rapid population growth:
i. Improved medical care
ii. Early marriages
iii. Religious beliefs: Islam among other religions encourage polygamy which leads to an increase in family size
iv. Improved transportation and communication
v. Industrialization: This is the growth of industries. The presence of industries makes people to migrate
vi. Low mortality rate

(b) Problems of rapid population growth include:
i. It leads to; i.traffic congestion
ii. Pressure on social amenities
iii. Increase in crime rate
iv. Environmental pollution
v. Housing problem or inadequate housing
vi. High cost of living
vii. Development of slums and ghettos
viii. Easy spread of disease

(a) Classes of towns based on their functions includes;
i. Administrative town: They serves as the capital city and seat of government
ii. Industrial town: Most manufacturing industries are found in towns
iii. Commercial town: Towns serves as centers for commercial activities
iv. Educational towns: Higher institutions are located in towns
v. Religious town: These are places where people visit for pilgrimage
vi. Market town: This is where manufactured products are sold.

(ii) Examples of the classification of each of the classes of towns mentioned above
i. Administrative town e.g. Abuja in Nigeria, Accra in Ghana
ii. Industrial town e.g. Ruhr in Germany, Lagos in Nigeria
iii. Commercial town e.g. London in the United Kingdom, Lagos in Nigeria
iv. Educational town e.g. Oxford in the United Kingdom, Harvard in the USA
v. Religious town e.g. Mecca in Saudi Arabia, Jerusalem in Israel
vi. Market town e.g. Kano in Nigeria, Kumasi in Ghana

(b) Ways in which rural and urban areas are interdependent are;
i. Urban areas serve as market towns for agricultural products gotten from rural areas
ii. Urban areas provide higher education to dwellers of rural areas
iii. Urban areas provide social amenities e.g. electricity, pipe-borne water, roads, etc. for rural areas
iv. Rural areas provide unskilled labour for urban areas
v. Rural areas provide raw materials for industries in the urban areas

(a) Characteristics of manufacturing industries in Tropical African countries are:
i.They are mainly concentrated in urban centres
ii. They are mainly light industries which output are lightweight goods
iii. Their products are import-substituting goods
iv. They are labour intensive i.e. need large labour to operate
v. Their products are consumed locally
vi. They need foreign nationals as experts for operation

(b) Problems of manufacturing industries in my country are:
i. Shortage of raw materials
ii. Competition from foreign goods
iii. Inadequate capital
iv. Inadequate power supply
v. Shortage of skilled labour
vi. High cost of production
vii. Poor management

(a) Description of Nigeria
Location:  Nigeria is located between latitude 40N and 140N of the Equator and Longitudes 30E and 150E of the Greenwich meridian. Therefore, the latitudinal extent or stretch of Nigeria is about 100 (140 – 40) while the longitudinal extent or stretch is 120 (150 – 130). Nigeria is bounded in the east by Cameroon Republic, to the west by Benin Republic, to the northeast by Chad Republic, and to the South by the Atlantic ocean.

Size: Nigeria is the fourth largest country in West Africa in terms of land area after Niger, Mali, and Mauritania. The total area of Nigeria is approximately 923,768 square kilometres. The greatest distance from east to west is approximately 1,300km while from north to south is about 1,100km.

In terms of population, Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa with over 150 million people. Hence, it is often referred to as Giant of Africa

(b) Ways in which highlands are important to the economy of Nigeria:
I. They are sources of minerals e.g. Tin is found on Jos plateau
ii. Formation of rainfall e.g. Relief or orographic rainfall
Hydroelectric power supply:
i. They serve as sources of rivers which are used to generate electricity
ii. They as used as raw materials for construction e.g limestone on western highlands
iii. Source of rivers e.g. River Benue from Eastern highlands
iv. For communication e.g. some masts are placed on the top of these highlands

(a) The map below shows the map of Nigeria
(b) Characteristics of rivers in Nigeria:
i.They have short course i.e. the channels through which they flow are short
ii. Presence of debris which impedes transport
iii. Seasonal fluctuation in volume: During the rainy season there is water in rivers while during the dry season there is little or no water
iv. Muddy appearance
v. Shallowness of the river

(c) Benefits of Kanji Lake to Nigeria:
i.Source of Hydroelectric power
ii. Source of water for domestic uses
iii. Employment for the fishermen
iv. Tourism
v. Sources of food e.g. Fishes

(a) Map of Nigeria showing areas of cattle rearing

(b) Factors that encourage cattle rearing in Northern Nigeria:
i. Absence of tse-tse flies which causes sickness for cattle
ii. Favourable tropical continental climate
iii. Availability of transport facilities
iv. Availability of veterinary services
v. Availability of traditional Fulani cattle rearers who are professionals in cattle rearing

(c) Reasons why cattle rearing is less important in Southern Nigeria:
1.There is regular conflict with cattle rearers and farmers
2. Presence of tse-tse flies which causes sleeping sickness in cattle
3. Heavy rainfall in the south causes foot rot disease in cattle
4.Presence of dense vegetation which hinders the easy movement of cattles.

(a) Calculation for the new map outline
The old scale = 1:50,000
The new scale = 1:25,000

To determine the number of times = old scale / new scale
= 50,000/ 25,000  = 2
Therefore, we are to enlarge the mapped area ABCD to twice of its original size.

Formula for map enlargement: Scale will reduce
Size will increase

The length measured = 8cm
New (enlarged) length = 8cm × 2 = 16cm

The breadth measured = 8cm
New (enlarged) length = 8cm × 2 = 16cm

(b)

(c) Likely occupations of the people who live in the area enclosed by ABCD

i. Farming due to the presence of scattered cultivation
ii. Transportation due to the presence of road and river
iii. Construction workers due to the presence of settlements
iv. Fishing (Fishermen) due to the presence of river
v. Teaching due to the presence of schools
vi. Trading due to the presence of market

(d) Land use types in the mapped area
i. Agricultural land use due to the presence of scattered cultivation
ii. Religious land use due to the presence of churches
iii. Educational land use due to the presence of schools
iv. Transportation land use due to the presence of roads
v. Residential land use due to the presence of settlements

(b) Advantages of Multiple bar graph
i. It makes comparison easier
ii. It’s very easy to construct
iii. It is easy to understand
iv. It gives clarity as to the quantities of production

 

 

(a) Latitude is an imaginary line running from east to west on the Earth’s surface. Also, it is an angular distance of a point on the earth’s surface measured in degrees north or south of the Equator.

(b) Similarities between lines of longitudes and latitudes;
I. both are imaginary lines
II. both lines contain Great Circles
III. both are measured in degrees
IV. both lines are used to calculate distances of places

(c) Differences between lines of longitudes and latitudes;
I. Lines of longitudes are called meridians while lines of latitudes are called parallels
II. Longitude is used in calculating time while latitude is used in measuring the distance between places
III. Lines of longitudes converge at the poles while lines of latitude are parallel to each other and never meet
IV. All lines of longitudes are Great Circles while the Equator is the only Great circle among lines of latitude
V. Longitudes runs from North to South while Latitudes runs from East to West
VI. Longitudes are measured in degrees East and West while Latitudes are measured in degrees North and South

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Climate is the average weather condition of a place taken over a long period of years usually between 30 to 40 years

(b) Influence of latitude on Temperature:
Due to the earth’s inclination, the midday sun is almost overhead within the tropics but the sun’s rays reach the Earth at an angle outside the tropics. Temperature thus diminishes from equatorial regions to the poles. This is illustrated in the diagram below. It shows two bands of rays coming from the sun to different latitudes on the equatorial latitudes on surface E. Band R2 falls obliquely over the temperature latitudes on surface T. R1 travels through a shorter distance and its concentrated solar insolation heats up a smaller surface area; temperature is thus high. On the other hand, R2 travels through a longer distance and much of its heat is absorbed by clouds, water vapour, and dust particles. Its oblique ray has to heat up a large area; temperature is therefore low.

The diagram above shows the effect of latitude on solar insolation. This shows why temperatures are lower in higher altitudes than in the tropics.

Description of Chemically formed sedimentary rocks
(a) Mode of formation: The main minerals for the formation may be from winds, glaciers, or streams. This type of sedimentary rock is derived from the accumulation of materials derived from other rocks over a long period of time. These materials are formed through chemical precipitation from other rock solutions. Over time, these precipitated rocks are accumulated and cemented in layers or strata and become hardened to form chemically formed sedimentary rocks. These strata vary in thickness.

(b) Examples: These are; Sodium Chloride (common salt), nitrates, gypsum or calcium sulphate, potash, etc.

(c) Importance:
i. source of minerals e.g Gypsum, Potash, Nitrates, etc
ii. Formation of fertile soil e.g potash, nitrates
iii. Raw materials for industries e.g Gypsum

 

Occurrence of Drought as an environmental hazard
(a) Causes:
I. Drought is mainly caused by lack of rainfall
ii. Presence of high daily temperature
iii. High rate of evapo-transpiration
iv. Lack of cloud cover and low humidity
v. Sudden changes in climate of an area

(b) Areas affected: The Sahara Desert (This covered; Northern Nigeria, Senegambia, Northern Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Somalia, Niger republic, Northern Benin republic

(c) Effects:
I. Drought disturbs plant’s life
ii. Surface streams or rivers may dry up
iii. It affects human beings and livestock
iv. It requires the planting of low moisture requirement crops
v.  It may lead to migration of man and animals

(d) Control:
I.  Afforestation: the planting of trees does encourage the formation of rain
ii. Irrigation: the artificial application of water to soil encourages the growth of plants
iii. Planting of cover crops does reduce evaporation and retain water in the soil
iv. Avoidance of over grazing

 

(a) Processes of river erosion are; Hydraulic action, Corrasion, Attrition, and Solution

(bi) Characteristics of Upper Course of a river;
i. It marks the beginning or source of a river
ii. It has steep slopes
iii. It occurs in Highland areas
iv. Dominant work is vertical erosion
v. There is the formation of features like a gorge, waterfall, river capture, etc.

(bii)  Characteristics of Middle Course of a river;
i. Lateral erosion is dominant
ii. Valleys are widened
iii. There is increased load of a river
iv. Dominant work is the transportation of materials or sediments
iv. There is the formation of features like braided meanders, river cliffs, etc.

(biii)  Characteristics of Lower Course of a river;
i. Main work is the deposition of materials or sediments
ii. There is increased volume of rivers from addition by tributaries
iii. The gradient is gentle and the speed of the river is very low
iv. There is the formation of features like Delta, Flood plains, Ox-bow lake

(a) Description of a Water-table
Water which seeps through the ground moves downward under the force of gravity until it reaches an impermeable layer of rock through which it cannot pass. If there is no ready outlet for the groundwater in the form of a spring, the water accumulates above the impermeable layer and saturates the rock. The permeable rock in which the water is stored is known as the Aquifer. The surface of the saturated area is called the Water-table.

The depth of the water-table varies greatly according to relief and to the type of rocks. The water-table is far below the surface of hilltops but is close to the surface in valleys and flat low-lying areas where it may cause waterlogging and swampy conditions. The depth of the water-table also varies greatly with the seasons. When plenty of rain is available to augment groundwater supplies the water-table may rise, but in dry periods, no new supplies are available, and the water-table is lowered as groundwater is lost through sea pages and springs

The diagram above is the diagram of Groundwater table.

(b) Factors that influence the depth of water-table are;
(i) relief of the area
(ii) types of rock
(iii) season
(iv) presence of spring
The depth of the water-table varies greatly according to relief and to the type of rocks. The water-table is far below the surface of hilltops but is close to the surface in valleys and flat low-lying areas where it may cause waterlogging and swampy conditions. The depth of the water-table also varies greatly with the seasons. When plenty of rain is available to augment groundwater supplies the water-table may rise, but in dry periods, no new supplies are available, and the water-table is lowered as groundwater is lost through sea pages and springs

(a) Factor that accounted for the world’s rapid population growth:
i. Improved medical care
ii. Early marriages
iii. Religious beliefs: Islam among other religions encourage polygamy which leads to an increase in family size
iv. Improved transportation and communication
v. Industrialization: This is the growth of industries. The presence of industries makes people to migrate
vi. Low mortality rate

(b) Problems of rapid population growth include:
i. It leads to; i.traffic congestion
ii. Pressure on social amenities
iii. Increase in crime rate
iv. Environmental pollution
v. Housing problem or inadequate housing
vi. High cost of living
vii. Development of slums and ghettos
viii. Easy spread of disease

(a) Classes of towns based on their functions includes;
i. Administrative town: They serves as the capital city and seat of government
ii. Industrial town: Most manufacturing industries are found in towns
iii. Commercial town: Towns serves as centers for commercial activities
iv. Educational towns: Higher institutions are located in towns
v. Religious town: These are places where people visit for pilgrimage
vi. Market town: This is where manufactured products are sold.

(ii) Examples of the classification of each of the classes of towns mentioned above
i. Administrative town e.g. Abuja in Nigeria, Accra in Ghana
ii. Industrial town e.g. Ruhr in Germany, Lagos in Nigeria
iii. Commercial town e.g. London in the United Kingdom, Lagos in Nigeria
iv. Educational town e.g. Oxford in the United Kingdom, Harvard in the USA
v. Religious town e.g. Mecca in Saudi Arabia, Jerusalem in Israel
vi. Market town e.g. Kano in Nigeria, Kumasi in Ghana

(b) Ways in which rural and urban areas are interdependent are;
i. Urban areas serve as market towns for agricultural products gotten from rural areas
ii. Urban areas provide higher education to dwellers of rural areas
iii. Urban areas provide social amenities e.g. electricity, pipe-borne water, roads, etc. for rural areas
iv. Rural areas provide unskilled labour for urban areas
v. Rural areas provide raw materials for industries in the urban areas

(a) Characteristics of manufacturing industries in Tropical African countries are:
i.They are mainly concentrated in urban centres
ii. They are mainly light industries which output are lightweight goods
iii. Their products are import-substituting goods
iv. They are labour intensive i.e. need large labour to operate
v. Their products are consumed locally
vi. They need foreign nationals as experts for operation

(b) Problems of manufacturing industries in my country are:
i. Shortage of raw materials
ii. Competition from foreign goods
iii. Inadequate capital
iv. Inadequate power supply
v. Shortage of skilled labour
vi. High cost of production
vii. Poor management

(a) Description of Nigeria
Location:  Nigeria is located between latitude 40N and 140N of the Equator and Longitudes 30E and 150E of the Greenwich meridian. Therefore, the latitudinal extent or stretch of Nigeria is about 100 (140 – 40) while the longitudinal extent or stretch is 120 (150 – 130). Nigeria is bounded in the east by Cameroon Republic, to the west by Benin Republic, to the northeast by Chad Republic, and to the South by the Atlantic ocean.

Size: Nigeria is the fourth largest country in West Africa in terms of land area after Niger, Mali, and Mauritania. The total area of Nigeria is approximately 923,768 square kilometres. The greatest distance from east to west is approximately 1,300km while from north to south is about 1,100km.

In terms of population, Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa with over 150 million people. Hence, it is often referred to as Giant of Africa

(b) Ways in which highlands are important to the economy of Nigeria:
I. They are sources of minerals e.g. Tin is found on Jos plateau
ii. Formation of rainfall e.g. Relief or orographic rainfall
Hydroelectric power supply:
i. They serve as sources of rivers which are used to generate electricity
ii. They as used as raw materials for construction e.g limestone on western highlands
iii. Source of rivers e.g. River Benue from Eastern highlands
iv. For communication e.g. some masts are placed on the top of these highlands

(a) The map below shows the map of Nigeria
(b) Characteristics of rivers in Nigeria:
i.They have short course i.e. the channels through which they flow are short
ii. Presence of debris which impedes transport
iii. Seasonal fluctuation in volume: During the rainy season there is water in rivers while during the dry season there is little or no water
iv. Muddy appearance
v. Shallowness of the river

(c) Benefits of Kanji Lake to Nigeria:
i.Source of Hydroelectric power
ii. Source of water for domestic uses
iii. Employment for the fishermen
iv. Tourism
v. Sources of food e.g. Fishes

(a) Map of Nigeria showing areas of cattle rearing

(b) Factors that encourage cattle rearing in Northern Nigeria:
i. Absence of tse-tse flies which causes sickness for cattle
ii. Favourable tropical continental climate
iii. Availability of transport facilities
iv. Availability of veterinary services
v. Availability of traditional Fulani cattle rearers who are professionals in cattle rearing

(c) Reasons why cattle rearing is less important in Southern Nigeria:
1.There is regular conflict with cattle rearers and farmers
2. Presence of tse-tse flies which causes sleeping sickness in cattle
3. Heavy rainfall in the south causes foot rot disease in cattle
4.Presence of dense vegetation which hinders the easy movement of cattles.