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Quiz 24 of 24

# 2020 Geography WAEC Theory Past Questions

#### Responses

error:

(a)   The five reasons for industrial localization are:
(i) Availability of market for the easy sale of the products
(ii) Presence of raw materials for the industry
(iv) Presence of labour or workers

(b) Five benefits of establishing manufacturing industries in rural areas are;
(i) It helps to increase the income of the rural dwellers
(ii) Provides employment opportunities
(iii) It helps in the even spread of development between the Urban and Rural areas.
(iv) Facilities improvement in the standard of living of the rural dwellers
(v) It also facilitates increased production of goods

(a)  Characteristics of Nucleated Settlement are:
(i) The settlements are compact or clustered together
(ii) It is of groups of several family residences
(iii) It is high population density
(iv) People living there are mostly those involved in carrying out secondary and tertiary activities.
(v) The settlement has farms located outside it.
(vi) The inhabitants interact highly among themselves
(vii) There is a central Business District which is the centre of the settlement.
(viii) Several social amenities are present
(ix) It has features of urban settlement.

(b) Functions of cities in the world are:
(i) They perform commercial functions with markets present
(ii) They perform education functions like presence of schools
(iii) They provide industrial job opportunities
(iv) They perform ecclesiastical or religious function with places of worship like Churches and Mosques
(v) Some of them provide Port Services
(vi) They provide high profile services
(vii) They Defence and Security
(viii) They perform administrative function with the presence of court, police stations etc.
(ix) There is tourism with recreational and holiday facilities
(x) Provide social
(xi) They facilitate the provision of social amenities
(xii) There are socio-cultural as well as Royal activities.

(c)  The factors that favour the growth of settlements:
(i) Favourable relief encourages the growth of settlement
(ii) The presence of water encourages settlement growth
(iii) The presence of natural resources encourages settlement growth
(iv) When there is job opportunities, people are encouraged to migrate to such place hence the settlement grows
(v) If infrastructural facilities are developed, settlement growth is encouraged
(vi) If there is presence of Security, people are encouraged to live there hence the development of settlement is encouraged
(vii) Good governance as well as political stability enhances the growth of settlement
(viii) Encouraging Commercial activities attract population and growth of settlement.
(ix) Absence of disaster
(x) Cultural and historical factors either discourage or encourage settlement growth.
(xi) Presence of fertile soil encourages growth of settlement
(xii) Adequate piece of land that allows expansion of the settlement
(xiii) Absence of disaster both natural and artificial disasters.
(xiv) Industrialization
(xv) Presence of equable or favourable climate
(xvi) Presence of educational facilities
(xvii) Presence of port activities
(xviii) Accessibility of the place encourages settlement growth

(a) Explanatory note on Ocean Transportation:
(i) It is a very important form of water transport
(ii) It makes use of large ships or vessels
(iii) It carries bulky goods
(iv) There must be seaports as well as harbours
(vi) It is relatively slow
(vii) It does not render door-to-door services
(viii) It involves international and intercontinental extents
(ix) Natural and artificial water ways are used
(x) It is very good for long distance trade
(xi) It is relatively cheap
(xii) South Atlantic, Cape of good hope, North Atlantic routes are involved in ocean transport.

(b) The advantages of water Transportation are:
(i) Large freight are conveyed by water transport
(ii) It links many parts of the world
(iii) Long distance across the world is covered by the use of water transportation
(iv) Bulky goods are conveyed
(v) Large passenger traffic is involved
(vi) It is relatively safe
(vii) It is the cheapest means of transportation
(viii) It integrates nations
(ix) It encourages tourism
(xi) The routes do except ports and harbours

(c) The ways in which poor Transportation Network can hinder. Economic development of a country are;
(i) It does not help in creating employment opportunities
(ii) Leads to poor national integration
(iii) It discourages low standard of living
(iv) Investors are discouraged from investing
(v) Production is discouraged hence inflation of the cost of goods
(vi) Revenue generation is limited
(vii) Reduces the rate of mobility
(viii) During emergencies, the operation is difficult.
(ix) Opening of new lands is made difficult
(x) Ideas and innovations are limited
(xi) Administration is of a lot of bottlenecks
(xii) Natural resources are difficult to exploit.

Map of Nigeria indicating the request Vegetation Belts and Ibadan

(b)  The characteristics of the Rainforest Belt:
(i) There are varieties of plants like trees, creeping plants, epiphytes, etc. are present.
(ii) The trees are of three layers which form a canopy
(iii) The trees are tall and have big girth
(iv) The forest is referred to evergreen forest because the trees do not shed leaves all at the same time
(v) The trees possess buttress roots
(vi) There is little undergrowth
(vii) The trees are clustered and not is pure strands
(viii) The trees possess broad leaves
(ix) The following are some of the trees found is the Rain forest belt; Obeche, Iroko, Mahogany and African walnut.
(x) The trees are of hard woods
(xi) The trees have long straight trunk
(xii) The trees form a dense forest
(xiii) There is a lot of litters

(c) The importance of the Rainforest Belt Vegetation to the economy of Nigeria are;
(i) It provides research centres
(ii) Provides foreign exchange earnings
(iii) Provides timber
(iv) The trees act as a windbreaker
(v) Provides raw materials for industries
(vi) Provides food crops like tuberous crops- Yam, Cassava, Cocoyam, etc.
(vii) Creates employment opportunities
(viii) Serve as game reserves
(ix) Source of medicinal herbs and materials
(x) Source of income to lumbermen
(xi) Provides tourist centres
(xii) Moderate the weather and climate
(xiii) Source of revenue to the government
(xiv) It protects the watersheds and soil

(a)        Physical map of Nigeria

(b) The benefits derived from the coastland of Nigeria are;
(i) Provide fishing ground
(ii) Lumbering is practiced
(iii) Source of fuelwood
(iv) Provides minerals
(v) Provides building materials
(vi) Provides cash crops like Cocoa, rubber, Palm nuts
(vii) Provides employment
(viii) Provides beautiful scenery for tourism

(c) The problems hindering the development of Seaports in Nigeria are;
(i) Lack of political will
(ii) Low level of technology
(iv) Skilled manpower is not enough
(v) Presence of rocky cliff coastline
(vi) A lot of silting along the coast
(vii) Development of port is highly costly
(viii) Presence of water weeds
(ix) Natural harbour is limited
(x) Poor management of the ports
(xi) Nature of sea waves and coastal erosion

(a)
(i) The source of thermal energy in Nigeria are;
- Petroleum
- Fuel, wood, charcoal
- Natural Gas

(ii) The renewable energy in Nigeria are;
- Water
- Biogas
- Sun
- Wind
- Waves

(b) The problems hindering the development of Thermal energy in Nigeria are;
(i) Skilled labour is less
(ii) Resources for thermal energy is scarce
(iii) Low level of technology
(iv) Hydro-Electric power is in keen competition with thermal energy
(v) The political will is weak
(vi) Spare parts are very costly
(vii) It is capital intensive
(viii) The siting of thermal stations is a result of poor planning
(ix) Sabotage, the vandalization of the equipment
(x) Political instability and

(c) The solution to the identified problems in 6(b) are;
(i) Adequate provision of capital for the development
(ii) The development of thermal energy resources
(iii) There should be strong political will on the part of the government
(iv) There should be a reduction in tariff so that it competes favourably with HEP.
(v) Plan should be implemented in thermal energy
(vi) Effective monitoring of the management
(vii) Enhanced budgetary allocation to power
(viii) Appropriate citing of thermal plant
(ix) Local fabrication of parts should be encouraged
(x) There should be constant training and retraining of workers

(a)

(b) Calculation of the length of the minor road from dispensary at Uhomora to Ugiavon
Length of the road = 18cm
Scale of map provided ⇒ 1:50,000

(c) Human features found are;
(i) Dispensary
(ii) School
(iii) Hospital
(iv) Bridge
(v) Church
(vi) Scattered cultivation
(vii) Rest House
(viii) Scattered buildings
(ix) Footpath
Physical features found are;
(i) River
(ii) Valley
(iii) Even slope
(iv) Spur
(v) Scrib
(vi) Hill

(a)     Divergent Bar Graph

Average of the contribution = $50,000 NB: It is advisable to calculate the average from the total hence the above deficit and surplus It is the deficit and surplus one uses to plot the Divergent Bar Graph On a graph, draw a horizontal line with the value of the average contribution A vertical line is drawn with the horizontal line intercepting at the middle of it. A divergent Bar Graph showing the contributions of the countries to a joint project. (b) The uses of Divergent Graph are; (i) It helps in the graphical representation of data (ii) It helps in comparing and analyzing the economic performance of an organization over time (iii) It gives a vivid and meaningful view of data (iv) In virtual form, one can summarize a large amount of data (v) The status of some social-economic variables (vi) It aids easy interpretation of a group of data (a) The factors that affect climate are; (i) Altitude which is the height above sea level affects the climate of a place by lapse rate and relief nature of the place. (ii) Latitude on which a place is located influences the amount of temperature it receives from the sun. The higher the latitude, the less the amount of heat received from the sun. (iii) Planetary winds and pressure belts (iv) Continentality otherwise known as the distance of the landmass from the sea. (v) Natural vegetation influences the humidity of a place by evapotranspiration (vi) Cloud cover- Areas of less cloud cover experience increased temperature while areas with more cloud cover have decreased temperature and high humidity. (vii) Isolation otherwise known as incoming solar energy influences the temperature and humidity of a place. The higher the isolation, the higher the solar energy received. (viii) Soil also determines the nature of the climate of a place through the reflectivity of light and heat. (b) The following are the characteristics of Equatorial Climate; (i) it experiences high temperatures all year round (ii) Small annual range of temperature (10C – 30C) (iii) It is of high humidity (iv) The mean monthly temperature is about 270C (v) The relative humidity is over 80% (vi) There is a lot of cloud cover (vii) It has a small daily range of temperature of about 50C (viii) The annual amount of rainfall is greater than 2000mm (ix) There is more rainfall in summer (x) It rains throughout the year (xi) There is no distinguished dry season (xii) There is double maxima rainfall pattern (xiii) Rainfall is accomplished by lightning and thunder. (xiv) There is presence of zone of trade winds (xv) The climate is hot and wet all the time. (a) Weathering is the gradual breakdown of rocks either physically, chemically, or biologically (b) The factors that affect weathering are; (i) Variation in temperature as well as climate (ii) Nature of rock present (iii) Rainfall (iv) Topography (v) Time (vi) Organisms including plants and animals (c) Description of the process of Exfoliation (i) Rocks beneath the earth’s surface like plutonic rocks gets exposed, (ii) Mechanical or physical weathering takes place, (iii) It occurs in humid and semi-arid as well as arid regions, (iv) The exposure of the rocks is achieved by erosion (v) The pressure on the overlying rock material is relaxed on the rock (vi) There is difference in temperature at the surface hence contraction at night or cold weather and expansion on the hot day. The continuous occurrence of these over time makes the exposed rock to get weak and subjected to external forces of weathering, (vii) The exposed upper layer peels off in shell-like manner or like an onion bulb. (viii) Thin peeling is called sheeting structure. (ix) Continuous expansion and contraction cause stress to build up more at the outer rock surface than the inner rock (x) The stress difference cause the rock to peel off in layers (xi) The process of peeling off of the outer layer of the exposed rock like concentric layers is called exfoliation (a) The difference between weather and climate NB: In attempting this question, one is advised to start with the definition of each of them. It gives a lead to the facts to be provided as difference. (i) Weather is defined as the immediate condition of the atmosphere at a particular place while climate is the average condition of the atmosphere for fairly a long time (ii) In weather consideration small area is used while for climate a large area is considered. (iii) Weather conditions cannot be generalized whereas climate can be generalized (iv) The condition of the atmosphere experienced within a short period, it could be for the morning, afternoon and night or hourly can be referred to as weather whereas climate has to be experienced for a fairly long period of say 35years. (v) One element can dominate in case of weather whereas for climate several elements dominate at the same time. (vi) It is all weather elements that are considered and measured in describing climate. (b) The following are instruments used in measuring weather elements; (i) Sunshine is measured with Sunshine Recorder or Campbell sti=okes recorder or Sundial or Pyranometer (ii) Rainfall is with Rain gauge (iii) Cloud cover is with cloud mirror or Ceilometer (c) How wind speed is measured The speed of wind is measured with an anemometer which has four cups attached to metal arms. It is kept in an open space. The metal arms are connected to a meter by a shaft. The cups move freely around a vertical shaft. The stronger the wind is, the faster the movement. The speed of the wind is indicated by the number of times the cups rotate around the shaft and recorded by the meter in kilometer per hour. The marine professionals record the wind speed in Knot. It is observed twice daily. There is one thing that is usually observed and that is the cups keep rotating even when the wind stops, for some time. This makes the recording not all that reliable. Recording of wind speed Reading and recording of speed of wind is performed daily between the hours of 9 am and 3 pm. The observer records the day and appends his/her signature. (a) The following are landforms found in the upper course of a River; (i) Interlocking spurs (ii) Hanging valley (iii) V-shape valley (iv) Highland (v) Steep slope (vi) Cliff (b) These are the differences between Alluvial fan and Delta; (i) Alluvial fans are found in both Humid and glacial environments while Delta is a depositional feature only found where a river enters the sea with many mountains/distributaries. (ii) Most alluvial fans are of coarse fragments, particularly in a glaciated environment whereas delta is associated with Silts, clay, sand, etc. deposits. (iii) Alluvial fans are formed within continents while delta are found in coastal areas (iv) Alluvial fans are of no water whereas deltas contain water (v) Deltas are of channels whereas alluvial fans are of dry rill channel (vi) Usually delta is formed at the lower course of a river while alluvial fans can be formed outs river channels. (vii) Alluvial fans are smaller than deltas in size. The Similarities between Deltas and Alluvial Fans are; (i) Both of them are depositional features (ii) Material in both are of alluvium (iii) They are fan shaped (iv) Both of them are formed as a result of the reduction in velocity of a river or stream (v) Materials in both are sorted. (a) The definition of Climate Climate is the average weather condition of the atmosphere over a period of time which is usually between 35 to 40 years. (b) Diagram indicating the climatic belts of Greek System of classification (c) Areas of hot desert climate are; (i) Iran with Iranian desert (ii) India with Thar desert (iii) North Africa with Sahara desert (iv) Middle East with Arabian desert (v) Australia with the Great Australian desert (vi) South West Africa with Kalahari and Nanib desert (vii) North America with Atacama or Peruvian desert (d) Characteristics of hot deserts; (i) There is a high rate of evaporation (ii) They are of high temperature usually 300C (iii) Very dry/highly arid (iv) The range of temperature varies between 90C and 200C (v) There is low relative humidity (vi) Night frost may occur (vii) The annual rainfall is below 250mm (viii) There could be up to 10months of no rainfall (ix) The main agent of erosion is wind (x) They experience sudden and violent rainfall (xi) They have highly intensive insolation which lasts long (xii) The sky is cloudless (xiii) They could be sandy, rocky/stony in appearance (xiv) Intensive sand storms do occur (xv) They possess adaptive plants like Boabab and xerophytic plant like Cactus. (a) The definition of atmospheric pollution; Atmospheric pollution is the release of substances as well as energy into the atmosphere in such a quantity that is harmful to man, animals, and plants. (b) The major sources of Air pollutants are; (i) Cloud seeding (ii) Explosion from fireworks likes firecrackers (iii) Volcanic eruption (iv) Bush burning (v) Noise from musical equipment like speakers (vi) Smoke from exhaust pipes of marine vessels, vehicles, airplanes, etc. (vii) Chlorofluo-carbon (viii) Gas and particle emission (ix) Radioactive substances (x) Spray of herbicides (c) Effects of atmospheric pollution; (i) Depletion of the ozone layer (ii) Increase in atmospheric temperature (iii) Increase/Rise in sea level (iv) Melting of polar ice (v) Cause acid rain (vi) Poor visibility (vii) Obstructs air transportation (viii) It leads to migration, hunger, death, drought, etc. (ix) Crops and vegetation are usually destroyed (x) Health hazards like cancer, lung diseases, etc. (xi) Due to rise in sea level, there is usually submergence of islands and low-lying coastlands. (a) The five reasons for industrial localization are: (i) Availability of market for the easy sale of the products (ii) Presence of raw materials for the industry (iii) Access to an adequate supply of power to run the machines and preserve the products (iv) Presence of labour or workers (v) Access to credit facilities easily (b) Five benefits of establishing manufacturing industries in rural areas are; (i) It helps to increase the income of the rural dwellers (ii) Provides employment opportunities (iii) It helps in the even spread of development between the Urban and Rural areas. (iv) Facilities improvement in the standard of living of the rural dwellers (v) It also facilitates increased production of goods (a) Characteristics of Nucleated Settlement are: (i) The settlements are compact or clustered together (ii) It is of groups of several family residences (iii) It is high population density (iv) People living there are mostly those involved in carrying out secondary and tertiary activities. (v) The settlement has farms located outside it. (vi) The inhabitants interact highly among themselves (vii) There is a central Business District which is the centre of the settlement. (viii) Several social amenities are present (ix) It has features of urban settlement. (b) Functions of cities in the world are: (i) They perform commercial functions with markets present (ii) They perform education functions like presence of schools (iii) They provide industrial job opportunities (iv) They perform ecclesiastical or religious function with places of worship like Churches and Mosques (v) Some of them provide Port Services (vi) They provide high profile services (vii) They Defence and Security (viii) They perform administrative function with the presence of court, police stations etc. (ix) There is tourism with recreational and holiday facilities (x) Provide social (xi) They facilitate the provision of social amenities (xii) There are socio-cultural as well as Royal activities. (c) The factors that favour the growth of settlements: (i) Favourable relief encourages the growth of settlement (ii) The presence of water encourages settlement growth (iii) The presence of natural resources encourages settlement growth (iv) When there is job opportunities, people are encouraged to migrate to such place hence the settlement grows (v) If infrastructural facilities are developed, settlement growth is encouraged (vi) If there is presence of Security, people are encouraged to live there hence the development of settlement is encouraged (vii) Good governance as well as political stability enhances the growth of settlement (viii) Encouraging Commercial activities attract population and growth of settlement. (ix) Absence of disaster (x) Cultural and historical factors either discourage or encourage settlement growth. (xi) Presence of fertile soil encourages growth of settlement (xii) Adequate piece of land that allows expansion of the settlement (xiii) Absence of disaster both natural and artificial disasters. (xiv) Industrialization (xv) Presence of equable or favourable climate (xvi) Presence of educational facilities (xvii) Presence of port activities (xviii) Accessibility of the place encourages settlement growth (a) Explanatory note on Ocean Transportation: (i) It is a very important form of water transport (ii) It makes use of large ships or vessels (iii) It carries bulky goods (iv) There must be seaports as well as harbours (v) It facilitates international trade. (vi) It is relatively slow (vii) It does not render door-to-door services (viii) It involves international and intercontinental extents (ix) Natural and artificial water ways are used (x) It is very good for long distance trade (xi) It is relatively cheap (xii) South Atlantic, Cape of good hope, North Atlantic routes are involved in ocean transport. (b) The advantages of water Transportation are: (i) Large freight are conveyed by water transport (ii) It links many parts of the world (iii) Long distance across the world is covered by the use of water transportation (iv) Bulky goods are conveyed (v) Large passenger traffic is involved (vi) It is relatively safe (vii) It is the cheapest means of transportation (viii) It integrates nations (ix) It encourages tourism (x) It encourages international Trade (xi) The routes do except ports and harbours (c) The ways in which poor Transportation Network can hinder. Economic development of a country are; (i) It does not help in creating employment opportunities (ii) Leads to poor national integration (iii) It discourages low standard of living (iv) Investors are discouraged from investing (v) Production is discouraged hence inflation of the cost of goods (vi) Revenue generation is limited (vii) Reduces the rate of mobility (viii) During emergencies, the operation is difficult. (ix) Opening of new lands is made difficult (x) Ideas and innovations are limited (xi) Administration is of a lot of bottlenecks (xii) Natural resources are difficult to exploit. Map of Nigeria indicating the request Vegetation Belts and Ibadan (b) The characteristics of the Rainforest Belt: (i) There are varieties of plants like trees, creeping plants, epiphytes, etc. are present. (ii) The trees are of three layers which form a canopy (iii) The trees are tall and have big girth (iv) The forest is referred to evergreen forest because the trees do not shed leaves all at the same time (v) The trees possess buttress roots (vi) There is little undergrowth (vii) The trees are clustered and not is pure strands (viii) The trees possess broad leaves (ix) The following are some of the trees found is the Rain forest belt; Obeche, Iroko, Mahogany and African walnut. (x) The trees are of hard woods (xi) The trees have long straight trunk (xii) The trees form a dense forest (xiii) There is a lot of litters (c) The importance of the Rainforest Belt Vegetation to the economy of Nigeria are; (i) It provides research centres (ii) Provides foreign exchange earnings (iii) Provides timber (iv) The trees act as a windbreaker (v) Provides raw materials for industries (vi) Provides food crops like tuberous crops- Yam, Cassava, Cocoyam, etc. (vii) Creates employment opportunities (viii) Serve as game reserves (ix) Source of medicinal herbs and materials (x) Source of income to lumbermen (xi) Provides tourist centres (xii) Moderate the weather and climate (xiii) Source of revenue to the government (xiv) It protects the watersheds and soil (a) Physical map of Nigeria (b) The benefits derived from the coastland of Nigeria are; (i) Provide fishing ground (ii) Lumbering is practiced (iii) Source of fuelwood (iv) Provides minerals (v) Provides building materials (vi) Provides cash crops like Cocoa, rubber, Palm nuts (vii) Provides employment (viii) Provides beautiful scenery for tourism (c) The problems hindering the development of Seaports in Nigeria are; (i) Lack of political will (ii) Low level of technology (iii) Inadequate capital (iv) Skilled manpower is not enough (v) Presence of rocky cliff coastline (vi) A lot of silting along the coast (vii) Development of port is highly costly (viii) Presence of water weeds (ix) Natural harbour is limited (x) Poor management of the ports (xi) Nature of sea waves and coastal erosion (xii) Poor road network (a) (i) The source of thermal energy in Nigeria are; - Petroleum - Fuel, wood, charcoal - Natural Gas (ii) The renewable energy in Nigeria are; - Water - Biogas - Sun - Wind - Waves (b) The problems hindering the development of Thermal energy in Nigeria are; (i) Skilled labour is less (ii) Resources for thermal energy is scarce (iii) Low level of technology (iv) Hydro-Electric power is in keen competition with thermal energy (v) The political will is weak (vi) Spare parts are very costly (vii) It is capital intensive (viii) The siting of thermal stations is a result of poor planning (ix) Sabotage, the vandalization of the equipment (x) Political instability and (xi) Inadequate capital (c) The solution to the identified problems in 6(b) are; (i) Adequate provision of capital for the development (ii) The development of thermal energy resources (iii) There should be strong political will on the part of the government (iv) There should be a reduction in tariff so that it competes favourably with HEP. (v) Plan should be implemented in thermal energy (vi) Effective monitoring of the management (vii) Enhanced budgetary allocation to power (viii) Appropriate citing of thermal plant (ix) Local fabrication of parts should be encouraged (x) There should be constant training and retraining of workers (a) (b) Calculation of the length of the minor road from dispensary at Uhomora to Ugiavon Length of the road = 18cm Scale of map provided ⇒ 1:50,000 (c) Human features found are; (i) Dispensary (ii) School (iii) Hospital (iv) Bridge (v) Church (vi) Scattered cultivation (vii) Rest House (viii) Scattered buildings (ix) Footpath Physical features found are; (i) River (ii) Valley (iii) Even slope (iv) Spur (v) Scrib (vi) Hill (a) Divergent Bar Graph Average of the contribution =$50,000

NB: It is advisable to calculate the average from the total hence the above deficit and surplus
It is the deficit and surplus one uses to plot the Divergent Bar Graph
On a graph, draw a horizontal line with the value of the average contribution
A vertical line is drawn with the horizontal line intercepting at the middle of it.
A divergent Bar Graph showing the contributions of the countries to a joint project.

(b) The uses of Divergent Graph are;
(i) It helps in the graphical representation of data
(ii) It helps in comparing and analyzing the economic performance of an organization over time
(iii) It gives a vivid and meaningful view of data
(iv) In virtual form, one can summarize a large amount of data
(v) The status of some social-economic variables
(vi) It aids easy interpretation of a group of data

(a)   The factors that affect climate are;
(i) Altitude which is the height above sea level affects the climate of a place by lapse rate and relief nature of the place.
(ii) Latitude on which a place is located influences the amount of temperature it receives from the sun. The higher the latitude, the less the amount of heat received from the sun.
(iii) Planetary winds and pressure belts
(iv) Continentality otherwise known as the distance of the landmass from the sea.
(v) Natural vegetation influences the humidity of a place by evapotranspiration
(vi) Cloud cover- Areas of less cloud cover experience increased temperature while areas with more cloud cover have decreased temperature and high humidity.
(vii) Isolation otherwise known as incoming solar energy influences the temperature and humidity of a place. The higher the isolation, the higher the solar energy received.
(viii) Soil also determines the nature of the climate of a place through the reflectivity of light and heat.

(b) The following are the characteristics of Equatorial Climate;
(i) it experiences high temperatures all year round
(ii) Small annual range of temperature (10C – 30C)
(iii) It is of high humidity
(iv) The mean monthly temperature is about 270C
(v) The relative humidity is over 80%
(vi) There is a lot of cloud cover
(vii) It has a small daily range of temperature of about 50C
(viii) The annual amount of rainfall is greater than 2000mm
(ix) There is more rainfall in summer
(x) It rains throughout the year
(xi) There is no distinguished dry season
(xii) There is double maxima rainfall pattern
(xiii) Rainfall is accomplished by lightning and thunder.
(xiv) There is presence of zone of trade winds
(xv) The climate is hot and wet all the time.

(a)  Weathering is the gradual breakdown of rocks either physically, chemically, or biologically

(b)  The factors that affect weathering are;
(i) Variation in temperature as well as climate
(ii) Nature of rock present
(iii) Rainfall
(iv) Topography
(v) Time
(vi) Organisms including plants and animals

(c) Description of the process of Exfoliation
(i) Rocks beneath the earth’s surface like plutonic rocks gets exposed,
(ii) Mechanical or physical weathering takes place,
(iii) It occurs in humid and semi-arid as well as arid regions,
(iv) The exposure of the rocks is achieved by erosion
(v) The pressure on the overlying rock material is relaxed on the rock
(vi) There is difference in temperature at the surface hence contraction at night or cold weather and expansion on the hot day. The continuous occurrence of these over time makes the exposed rock to get weak and subjected to external forces of weathering,
(vii) The exposed upper layer peels off in shell-like manner or like an onion bulb.
(viii) Thin peeling is called sheeting structure.
(ix) Continuous expansion and contraction cause stress to build up more at the outer rock surface than the inner rock
(x) The stress difference cause the rock to peel off in layers
(xi) The process of peeling off of the outer layer of the exposed rock like concentric layers is called exfoliation

(a) The difference between weather and climate
NB: In attempting this question, one is advised to start with the definition of each of them. It gives a lead to the facts to be provided as difference.

(i) Weather is defined as the immediate condition of the atmosphere at a particular place while climate is the average condition of the atmosphere for fairly a long time
(ii) In weather consideration small area is used while for climate a large area is considered.
(iii) Weather conditions cannot be generalized whereas climate can be generalized
(iv) The condition of the atmosphere experienced within a short period, it could be for the morning, afternoon and night or hourly can be referred to as weather whereas climate has to be experienced for a fairly long period of say 35years.
(v) One element can dominate in case of weather whereas for climate several elements dominate at the same time.
(vi) It is all weather elements that are considered and measured in describing climate.

(b) The following are instruments used in measuring weather elements;
(i) Sunshine is measured with Sunshine Recorder or Campbell sti=okes recorder or Sundial or Pyranometer
(ii) Rainfall is with Rain gauge
(iii) Cloud cover is with cloud mirror or Ceilometer

(c) How wind speed is measured
The speed of wind is measured with an anemometer which has four cups attached to metal arms. It is kept in an open space. The metal arms are connected to a meter by a shaft.
The cups move freely around a vertical shaft. The stronger the wind is, the faster the movement. The speed of the wind is indicated by the number of times the cups rotate around the shaft and recorded by the meter in kilometer per hour.
The marine professionals record the wind speed in Knot.
It is observed twice daily. There is one thing that is usually observed and that is the cups keep rotating even when the wind stops, for some time. This makes the recording not all that reliable.
Recording of wind speed
Reading and recording of speed of wind is performed daily between the hours of 9 am and 3 pm. The observer records the day and appends his/her signature.

(a) The following are landforms found in the upper course of a River;
(i) Interlocking spurs
(ii) Hanging valley
(iii) V-shape valley
(iv) Highland
(v) Steep slope
(vi) Cliff

(b) These are the differences between Alluvial fan and Delta;
(i) Alluvial fans are found in both Humid and glacial environments while Delta is a depositional feature only found where a river enters the sea with many mountains/distributaries.
(ii) Most alluvial fans are of coarse fragments, particularly in a glaciated environment whereas delta is associated with Silts, clay, sand, etc. deposits.
(iii) Alluvial fans are formed within continents while delta are found in coastal areas
(iv) Alluvial fans are of no water whereas deltas contain water
(v) Deltas are of channels whereas alluvial fans are of dry rill channel
(vi) Usually delta is formed at the lower course of a river while alluvial fans can be formed outs river channels.
(vii) Alluvial fans are smaller than deltas in size.

The Similarities between Deltas and Alluvial Fans are;
(i) Both of them are depositional features
(ii) Material in both are of alluvium
(iii) They are fan shaped
(iv) Both of them are formed as a result of the reduction in velocity of a river or stream
(v) Materials in both are sorted.

(a)  The definition of Climate
Climate is the average weather condition of the atmosphere over a period of time which is usually between 35 to 40 years.

(b) Diagram indicating the climatic belts of Greek System of classification

(c)  Areas of hot desert climate are;
(i) Iran with Iranian desert
(ii) India with Thar desert
(iii) North Africa with Sahara desert
(iv) Middle East with Arabian desert
(v) Australia with the Great Australian desert
(vi) South West Africa with Kalahari and Nanib desert
(vii) North America with Atacama or Peruvian desert

(d)  Characteristics of hot deserts;
(i) There is a high rate of evaporation
(ii) They are of high temperature usually 300C
(iii) Very dry/highly arid
(iv) The range of temperature varies between 90C and 200C
(v) There is low relative humidity
(vi) Night frost may occur
(vii) The annual rainfall is below 250mm
(viii) There could be up to 10months of no rainfall
(ix) The main agent of erosion is wind
(x) They experience sudden and violent rainfall
(xi) They have highly intensive insolation which lasts long
(xii) The sky is cloudless
(xiii) They could be sandy, rocky/stony in appearance
(xiv) Intensive sand storms do occur
(xv) They possess adaptive plants like Boabab and xerophytic plant like Cactus.

(a) The definition of atmospheric pollution;
Atmospheric pollution is the release of substances as well as energy into the atmosphere in such a quantity that is harmful to man, animals, and plants.

(b) The major sources of Air pollutants are;
(i) Cloud seeding
(ii) Explosion from fireworks likes firecrackers
(iii) Volcanic eruption
(iv) Bush burning
(v) Noise from musical equipment like speakers
(vi) Smoke from exhaust pipes of marine vessels, vehicles, airplanes, etc.
(vii) Chlorofluo-carbon
(viii) Gas and particle emission
(x) Spray of herbicides

(c) Effects of atmospheric pollution;
(i) Depletion of the ozone layer
(ii) Increase in atmospheric temperature
(iii) Increase/Rise in sea level
(iv) Melting of polar ice
(v) Cause acid rain
(vi) Poor visibility
(vii) Obstructs air transportation
(viii) It leads to migration, hunger, death, drought, etc.
(ix) Crops and vegetation are usually destroyed
(x) Health hazards like cancer, lung diseases, etc.
(xi) Due to rise in sea level, there is usually submergence of islands and low-lying coastlands.