Quiz 22 of 24

2019 GOVERNMENT WAEC Theory Past Questions

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Reasons for the study of government;
i. To have knowledge of how the state is managed and governed/Functions of government
ii. To be abreast with national and global political occurrences/development
iii. To be equipped with the basic knowledge of one's rights and how to defend them when violated
iv. Deepens the understanding of international relations and a state's commitment to international organizations
v. Create interest for active political participation
vi. Inculcate in citizens the spirit of patriotism/nationalism
vii. To understand the different political systems/types of government with their advantages and disadvantages
viii. Offers opportunity for leadership training
ix. Provides knowledge of the political history of the state
x. Helps provide solutions to socio-political and economic problems by the introduction of programmes and policies and best practices in other political environments.

(b)  A citizen is a legal member of the state who enjoys all rights and privileges and owes allegiance to the state

(b) Responsibilities of a citizen to the state;
i. Obedience to the law of the state
ii. Payment of taxes
iii. Defense of the state against any external attacks and internal insurrection
iv. Vote during election
v. Protection of state/public property
vi. Assist law enforcement agencies in exposing crimes and criminals
vii. Respect for national symbols
viii. To protect and safeguard the environment e.g. communal labour
ix. Performance of service to the state
x. Uphold and protect the good name of the country

Roles played by the mass media in strengthening modern democracy;
i. It serves as an instrument of public education/enlightens the masses
ii. It is an agent of political socialization
iii. It moulds public opinion
iv. It assists the government in policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation
v. Dissemination of information
vi. It keeps the government in check to ensure good governance
vii. It exposes the ills in the society
viii. It provides employment opportunities for the people
ix. To a large extent protects minority interest
x. It mobilizes support for government policies and programmes

 

 

 

(a) A Local Government is a sub government unit created by the central/state government through an act of parliament to administer a local area.

(b) Reasons for the creation of Local Government;
i. It is created to bring government closer to the people
ii. It is created to provide certain basic services at the local level
iii. To encourage local participation in governance
iv. To give the local people a sense of belonging
v. To decentralize power from the center
vi. To mobilize human and material resources at the local level for rapid development
vii. To serve as a link between the central government and local areas
viii. To help in the preservation of traditional institutions in the local areas
ix. To make and enforce bye-laws
x. To serve as a training ground for future leaders/politicians

 

(a) Types of elections;
i. Direct election
ii. Indirect election/electoral college system
iii. Bye-election
iv. General election
v. Staggered election
vi. Primary election
vii. Supplementary/inconclusive election
viii. Re-run election
ix. Run-off/second ballot

(b) Purposes elections serve in a democratic state ;
i. Choice/selection of leadership
ii. Confers legitimacy on government/officeholders
iii. Promotion of accountability and transparency in governance
iv. Promotes political education through campaign
v. It serves as an index to measure the popularity of both party and candidates
vi. Promotion of political participation
vii. Ensure the smooth transfer of political power/change of government
viii. It ensures competition between or among political parties
ix. It helps to ensure the level of citizen's political commitment to the political system
x. Election helps to promote a sense of belonging

(a) Pre-independence constitutions in Nigeria;
i. Clifford Constitution 1922
ii. Rchards' Constitution 1946
iii. Macpherson Constitution 1951
iv. Lyttleton Constitution 1954

(b) Features of the 1960 Independence Constitution of Nigeria;
i. It provides for a Bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and House of Representatives
ii. It made provision for citizenship in Nigeria
iii. It granted emergency powers to the central government
iv. It provided for a parliamentary system of government
v. It made provision for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedom
vi. It granted the federal Supreme Court the power of judicial review
vii. It created the Judicial Service Commission with the power to appoint judges
viii. All residual powers are placed in the hands of the region
ix. It provided for the position of Governor-General who represented the Queen of England and the Prime Minister
x. It stated the basis for revenue allocation

(a) Problems confronting Nigerian federalism;
i. Problem of an acceptable revenue allocation formula
ii. Over concentration of powers at the centre
iii. Ethnicity and tribalism
iv. Fear of the majority domination
v. Threat to national unity/integration
vi. Threat of secession
vii. The problem of power rotation/Problem of power sharing
viii. Improper application of federal character principle
ix. Mutual mistrust/suspicion among the various ethnic groups
x. Unresolved census crises

(b) Features of Nigerian federalism;
i. Division of power between the centre and component units
ii. Existence of a written and rigid constitution
iii. Supremacy of the constitution
iv. Existence of a Bicameral legislature at the centre and Unicameral legislature at the component units
v. Existence of a Supreme Court
vi. Centralised Police Force
vii. The adoption of the federal character principle
viii. Decentralization of public and judicial services
ix. Provision for a multi-party system

 

(a) Key members of the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM);
i. H. O. Davies
ii. Ernest Okoli
iii. J. C. Vaughan
iv. Samuel Akinsanya
v. Kofi Abayomi
vi. Akinola Maja
vii. Nnamdi Azikiwe
viii. Mobolaji Bank Anthony
ix. Jubril Martins
x. Obafemi Awolowo
xi. Duro Emmanuel
xii. S. O. Shonibare
xiii. Eyo Ita
xiv. S. L. Akintola

(b) Achievements of the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) in the political development of Nigeria;
i. The movement won all the three legislative seats allocated to Lagos in 1938
ii. It led to the struggle for national unity and political independence
iii. It helped to put pressure on the colonial government to speed up the constitutional development and independence of Nigeria
iv. The movement established a newspaper called Daily Service to create political awareness among the people of Nigeria
v. It fought for equality of opportunities for all Nigerians
vi. It fought for the introduction of universal adult suffrage in Nigeria
vii. It was the first multi-ethnic political party that brought together people of different ethnic groups in Nigeria.
viii. The Movement nurtured early Nigeria nationalists who helped in the struggle for independence
ix. It fought against economic exploitation by European firms

(a) NEPAD is a vision and strategic framework for the socio-economic and political development of Africa.

(b) Objectives of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD);
i. A commitment to good governance as a pre-condition for economic growth
ii. Eradication of poverty from the African continent within a stipulated time
iii. Strengthening democracy and the Rule of Law in Africa
iv. Achieving peace, security, and stability in Africa
v. Acceleration of the empowerment of women in African countries so as to ensure gender equality
vi. To make Africa attractive to both domestic and foreign investors
vii. Reduction of corruption in Africa
viii. To halt the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process
ix. To increase investment in human resource development
x. The enhancement of the standard of living of the people of Africa

(a) Contributions of the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA) to the nationalist struggle ;
i. Brought the four British West African territories together to fight for self-government
ii. It sent a delegation to London to press home demands for certain key reforms in their respective territories
iii. The Congress awakened the political consciousness of the people through newspaper publications, seminars, public/town hall meetings
iv. It demanded and fought for electoral reforms/elective principle
v. Demanded the Africanization of the Civil Service
vi. Demanded and fought for the establishment of universities in member territories
vii. It fought for the formation of a West African House of Assembly
viii. It called for the reduction of the exploitation, domination/monopolization of the economies of the British West African territories by expatriates
ix. It demanded for the appointment of African judges and magistrates
x. They demanded for the establishment of the African Court of Appeal

 

(b) Contributions of Nnamdi Azikiwe to the nationalist struggle of Nigeria;
i. He founded different newspapers to help propagate nationalism in Nigeria
ii. Zik group established these newspapers in political and economically important cities throughout the country to whip up the interest and enthusiasm of the populace as well as the direction of the independent struggle
iii. He co-founded the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) which played an active role in the struggle for Nigeria’s independence
iv. Zik’s opposition to Richard’s constitution of 1946 which sought to increase only by four, African representations on the Legislative Council with the rest being nominated by the government
v. His opposition to the Richard’s constitution led to the promulgation of the Macpherson Constitution
vi. He toured the country to raise funds to lead a delegation to London and the U.S.A to plead the case of his party for self-government for Nigeria
vii. He gave his support to the general strike in 1945
viii. He influenced nationalist struggle through the publication of several books e.g. Development of political parties in Nigeria 1958; Economic restructure in Nigeria 1943
ix. As a member of Parliament 1947-1950, he joined others to ensure that Nigeria gained self-government
x. He joined the Nigeria Youth movement (NYM) with others to open the floodgate for nationalism in Nigeria

Reasons for the study of government;
i. To have knowledge of how the state is managed and governed/Functions of government
ii. To be abreast with national and global political occurrences/development
iii. To be equipped with the basic knowledge of one's rights and how to defend them when violated
iv. Deepens the understanding of international relations and a state's commitment to international organizations
v. Create interest for active political participation
vi. Inculcate in citizens the spirit of patriotism/nationalism
vii. To understand the different political systems/types of government with their advantages and disadvantages
viii. Offers opportunity for leadership training
ix. Provides knowledge of the political history of the state
x. Helps provide solutions to socio-political and economic problems by the introduction of programmes and policies and best practices in other political environments.

(b)  A citizen is a legal member of the state who enjoys all rights and privileges and owes allegiance to the state

(b) Responsibilities of a citizen to the state;
i. Obedience to the law of the state
ii. Payment of taxes
iii. Defense of the state against any external attacks and internal insurrection
iv. Vote during election
v. Protection of state/public property
vi. Assist law enforcement agencies in exposing crimes and criminals
vii. Respect for national symbols
viii. To protect and safeguard the environment e.g. communal labour
ix. Performance of service to the state
x. Uphold and protect the good name of the country

Roles played by the mass media in strengthening modern democracy;
i. It serves as an instrument of public education/enlightens the masses
ii. It is an agent of political socialization
iii. It moulds public opinion
iv. It assists the government in policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation
v. Dissemination of information
vi. It keeps the government in check to ensure good governance
vii. It exposes the ills in the society
viii. It provides employment opportunities for the people
ix. To a large extent protects minority interest
x. It mobilizes support for government policies and programmes

 

 

 

(a) A Local Government is a sub government unit created by the central/state government through an act of parliament to administer a local area.

(b) Reasons for the creation of Local Government;
i. It is created to bring government closer to the people
ii. It is created to provide certain basic services at the local level
iii. To encourage local participation in governance
iv. To give the local people a sense of belonging
v. To decentralize power from the center
vi. To mobilize human and material resources at the local level for rapid development
vii. To serve as a link between the central government and local areas
viii. To help in the preservation of traditional institutions in the local areas
ix. To make and enforce bye-laws
x. To serve as a training ground for future leaders/politicians

 

(a) Types of elections;
i. Direct election
ii. Indirect election/electoral college system
iii. Bye-election
iv. General election
v. Staggered election
vi. Primary election
vii. Supplementary/inconclusive election
viii. Re-run election
ix. Run-off/second ballot

(b) Purposes elections serve in a democratic state ;
i. Choice/selection of leadership
ii. Confers legitimacy on government/officeholders
iii. Promotion of accountability and transparency in governance
iv. Promotes political education through campaign
v. It serves as an index to measure the popularity of both party and candidates
vi. Promotion of political participation
vii. Ensure the smooth transfer of political power/change of government
viii. It ensures competition between or among political parties
ix. It helps to ensure the level of citizen's political commitment to the political system
x. Election helps to promote a sense of belonging

(a) Pre-independence constitutions in Nigeria;
i. Clifford Constitution 1922
ii. Rchards' Constitution 1946
iii. Macpherson Constitution 1951
iv. Lyttleton Constitution 1954

(b) Features of the 1960 Independence Constitution of Nigeria;
i. It provides for a Bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and House of Representatives
ii. It made provision for citizenship in Nigeria
iii. It granted emergency powers to the central government
iv. It provided for a parliamentary system of government
v. It made provision for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedom
vi. It granted the federal Supreme Court the power of judicial review
vii. It created the Judicial Service Commission with the power to appoint judges
viii. All residual powers are placed in the hands of the region
ix. It provided for the position of Governor-General who represented the Queen of England and the Prime Minister
x. It stated the basis for revenue allocation

(a) Problems confronting Nigerian federalism;
i. Problem of an acceptable revenue allocation formula
ii. Over concentration of powers at the centre
iii. Ethnicity and tribalism
iv. Fear of the majority domination
v. Threat to national unity/integration
vi. Threat of secession
vii. The problem of power rotation/Problem of power sharing
viii. Improper application of federal character principle
ix. Mutual mistrust/suspicion among the various ethnic groups
x. Unresolved census crises

(b) Features of Nigerian federalism;
i. Division of power between the centre and component units
ii. Existence of a written and rigid constitution
iii. Supremacy of the constitution
iv. Existence of a Bicameral legislature at the centre and Unicameral legislature at the component units
v. Existence of a Supreme Court
vi. Centralised Police Force
vii. The adoption of the federal character principle
viii. Decentralization of public and judicial services
ix. Provision for a multi-party system

 

(a) Key members of the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM);
i. H. O. Davies
ii. Ernest Okoli
iii. J. C. Vaughan
iv. Samuel Akinsanya
v. Kofi Abayomi
vi. Akinola Maja
vii. Nnamdi Azikiwe
viii. Mobolaji Bank Anthony
ix. Jubril Martins
x. Obafemi Awolowo
xi. Duro Emmanuel
xii. S. O. Shonibare
xiii. Eyo Ita
xiv. S. L. Akintola

(b) Achievements of the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) in the political development of Nigeria;
i. The movement won all the three legislative seats allocated to Lagos in 1938
ii. It led to the struggle for national unity and political independence
iii. It helped to put pressure on the colonial government to speed up the constitutional development and independence of Nigeria
iv. The movement established a newspaper called Daily Service to create political awareness among the people of Nigeria
v. It fought for equality of opportunities for all Nigerians
vi. It fought for the introduction of universal adult suffrage in Nigeria
vii. It was the first multi-ethnic political party that brought together people of different ethnic groups in Nigeria.
viii. The Movement nurtured early Nigeria nationalists who helped in the struggle for independence
ix. It fought against economic exploitation by European firms

(a) NEPAD is a vision and strategic framework for the socio-economic and political development of Africa.

(b) Objectives of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD);
i. A commitment to good governance as a pre-condition for economic growth
ii. Eradication of poverty from the African continent within a stipulated time
iii. Strengthening democracy and the Rule of Law in Africa
iv. Achieving peace, security, and stability in Africa
v. Acceleration of the empowerment of women in African countries so as to ensure gender equality
vi. To make Africa attractive to both domestic and foreign investors
vii. Reduction of corruption in Africa
viii. To halt the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process
ix. To increase investment in human resource development
x. The enhancement of the standard of living of the people of Africa

(a) Contributions of the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA) to the nationalist struggle ;
i. Brought the four British West African territories together to fight for self-government
ii. It sent a delegation to London to press home demands for certain key reforms in their respective territories
iii. The Congress awakened the political consciousness of the people through newspaper publications, seminars, public/town hall meetings
iv. It demanded and fought for electoral reforms/elective principle
v. Demanded the Africanization of the Civil Service
vi. Demanded and fought for the establishment of universities in member territories
vii. It fought for the formation of a West African House of Assembly
viii. It called for the reduction of the exploitation, domination/monopolization of the economies of the British West African territories by expatriates
ix. It demanded for the appointment of African judges and magistrates
x. They demanded for the establishment of the African Court of Appeal

 

(b) Contributions of Nnamdi Azikiwe to the nationalist struggle of Nigeria;
i. He founded different newspapers to help propagate nationalism in Nigeria
ii. Zik group established these newspapers in political and economically important cities throughout the country to whip up the interest and enthusiasm of the populace as well as the direction of the independent struggle
iii. He co-founded the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) which played an active role in the struggle for Nigeria’s independence
iv. Zik’s opposition to Richard’s constitution of 1946 which sought to increase only by four, African representations on the Legislative Council with the rest being nominated by the government
v. His opposition to the Richard’s constitution led to the promulgation of the Macpherson Constitution
vi. He toured the country to raise funds to lead a delegation to London and the U.S.A to plead the case of his party for self-government for Nigeria
vii. He gave his support to the general strike in 1945
viii. He influenced nationalist struggle through the publication of several books e.g. Development of political parties in Nigeria 1958; Economic restructure in Nigeria 1943
ix. As a member of Parliament 1947-1950, he joined others to ensure that Nigeria gained self-government
x. He joined the Nigeria Youth movement (NYM) with others to open the floodgate for nationalism in Nigeria