Quiz 6 of 14

2018 GOVERNMENT WAEC Theory Past Questions

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Question 1

(a) Define society

Answer

A group of people who share similar values, laws, traditions living in organized communities for mutual benefit. 

 

(b) identify four features of a society

Answer

i. It is characterized by a unique culture

ii. Membership of a society is voluntary 

iii. The rules and regulations of a society are binding on all residents 

iv. Roles in the society are dynamic 

v. It is controlled by rules/regulations, norms, conventions, and customs 

vi. It applies sanctions on its members as a means of ensuring or effecting discipline 

vii. It also applies the use of coercive means to ensure compliance with norms, rules and customs 

viii. It is permanent in nature 

ix. It is characterized by cooperation, competition and conflicts 

x. Members depend on one another for survival 

Question 2

(a) What is communalism

Answer

Communalism is a sociopolitical system based on common ownership of land in which the sense of togetherness in the community is the factor of unity. It is also a system in which the mode of production, the land and what it produced belonged to all members of the community and are equitably distributed or shared 

 

(b) State four difference between feudalism and communalism.

Answer

i. There is dictatorship in feudalism whereas there is none in communalism

ii. In feudalism, there is compulsory service of the vassals/serfs to the lords while in communalism there is no compulsory service

iii. There is discrimination in income distribution in feudalism. In communalism, there is an equitable distribution 

iv. There is segregation/class status in feudalism while in communalism there is an equitable distribution 

v. The feudal system has conquest and subjugation as its feature while communalism is based on peace and tranquility 

The land belongs to the lord in feudalism, while in communalism the land is communally owned 

vii. There is feudal lord in feudalism while there is no lordship in communalism 

viii. Feudalism is a more advanced political system while communalism is operated in a primitive, less advanced society

Question 3

(a). Highlight three methods of acquiring citizenship

Answer

i. Citizenship can be acquired by birth i.e born by parents who are citizens of the country/state

ii. Citizenship by registration i.e through marriage 

iii. Citizenship can be  acquired by naturalization: a citizen of another country can apply for citizenship of another country, where he/she resides 

iv. Citizenship by descent or when grandparents claimed to have migrated from somewhere 

v. Adoption through a legal process 

vi. Honorary/conferment by the state 

vii. Conquest through wars/subjugation 

viii. Foundling: this citizenship involves rescuing children on the streets 

 

(b). Outline two conditions an alien must satisfy before becoming a citizen of another country.

Answer

i. The alien must have good character or of good reputation 

ii. The alien must have married a citizen for not less than a period of five years 

iii. He or she must have lived in the country for a very long period of time which may range from 15-20 years 

iv. The alien must have renounced his/her former nationality 

v. The applicant for the citizenship must take the oath of allegiance 

vi. He/She must be of a mature age i.e eighteen years 

vii. The alien must be capable of contributing meaningfully to the advancement and progress of the country 

viii. He/She must be acceptable to the locality where he/she is residing 

Question 4

(a) Define opinion poll.

Answer

An opinion poll is a scientific method of measuring views, opinions, and choice of the people based on the predication of social, political and economic issues facing a state. e.g. Popularity of a government or predicting election results.

 

(b). State any four factors that make the conduct of opinion poll unreliable in West Africa

Answer

(i). Lack of expertise knowledge by officials conducting the polls.

(ii). Reliable methods which may produce accurate results are expensive 

(iii). High level of illiteracy and ignorance among the people.

(iv). Problems of analyzing statistical data/poor knowledge of statistical analysis.

(v). Lack of objectivity among the respondents/ interviewees.

(vi). People get scared of being interviewed.

(vii). Poor communication network

(viii). Lack of objectivity among the pollsters.

(ix). Poor funding of poll

(x). Poor knowledge of instrument design and administration e.g. misleading sampling techniques, incomplete or inaccurate questions and structured interviews formats.

(xi). Principle of confidentiality in the civil and public service

(xii). Falsification of information/data by both sources and data collectors.

(xiii). Nature of Government e.g. military/civilian

Question 5

(a). Define a constituency

Answer

A constituency is an electoral district where the electorate exercises their right to elect their representatives into government/parliament.

 

(b). Highlight any four merits of the singular member constituency.

Answer

(i) Community support: single-member constituency encourages candidates who are community-based

(ii). Better knowledge of candidates: it enables the voters to have better knowledge of their candidates.

(iii). Active interest: It stimulates the interests of the voters in the election.

(iv). Easy to operate: It is easy to practices as the winners emerge easily.

(v). Reduce cost: It is not costly as opposed to multi-member constituency elections where election materials and personnel are fewer.

(vi). Promotes political stability: The system makes it easy for a party/candidate to win a majority in the legislature and thus maintain political stability.

(vii). The constituencies are small and therefore it makes accountability to be enforced.

(viii). The small size of the constituencies make personal contacts between voters and representatives possible and easier. 

Question 6

Highlight five features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial political system in Nigeria

Answer

(i). Centralization of authority and Hierarchy in governance: The Emir was the head of government. He was assisted by appointed chiefs. E.g. Madawaki, Galadima, Waziri.

(ii). Payment of tributes to sustain administration: There were rates paid by the people for land, property, and cattle.

(iii). The size of the Emirate system was large: The emirate occupied a large expanse of land with many populations.

(iv). Stratification: The Hausa/ Fulani society was segmented into upper, middle, and lower classes, and the Talakawas.

(v). Army: Every emirate kept a standing army under the control of Madawaki.

(vi). The judiciary: The emirate judicial system was based on the sharia laws headed by Alkali and the Emir's court was the highest court.

(vii). Rulership was for life.

(viii). Succession to the throne was hereditary.

(ix). The political system was based on theocracy e.g. Islamic religion.

(x). Emirs were empowered to make laws where Islamic laws were silent.

(xi) Emirs were empowered to pronounce death sentences on defaulters.

(xii). There was regularised system of taxation in operation.

(xiii). Executive, Legislative and Judicial powers were concentrated on the Emir.

Question 7

(a) What is proto-Nationalism?

Answer

Proto-nationalism; denotes that the activities of the nationalist movements were geared towards reforms and participation of the natives in the colonial administration rather than for immediate self-government.

 

(b). Identify four features of proto-nationalism.

Answer

(i). Demands of the nationalists were aimed at reforms and participation in the colonial administration.

(ii). Movements formed under proto-nationalism were elitist, i.e. domination by the elites.

(iii). The proto-nationalism organizers employed constitutional and non-violent means in seeking redress.

(iv). The leaders were conservative their activities were restricted to the urban centers.

(v) There was the formation of inter-territorial movements such as the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA).

(vi) It was also characterized by the formation of youth movements e.g Gold Coast Congress etc.

(vii). Their activities were more popular along the coastal areas.

(viii). Most of the movements were centred on personalities whose deaths led to their collapse.

(ix). Most of the leaders were either publishers or editors of newspapers. These newspapers were used to pursue their nationalist objectives. 

Question 8

Highlight five functions of the president in the 1989 constitution of Nigeria

Answer

(i). The President is the Chief Executive of the country who performed the day-to-day administration of the country. 

(ii). He inaugurated the National Assembly at the beginning of each session. 

(iii). He assented to bills passed by the National Assembly into laws.

(iv). He appointed key officers e.g. ministers, ambassadors, the CBN Governor, Director of government agencies among others.

(v). He represented the country at international conferences like UNO, AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, etc.

(vi) He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

(vii). He performed ceremonial functions

(viii). He exercised the prerogative of mercy: He pardoned convicted persons or those found guilty of treasons.

(ix). He signed treaties with other countries on behalf of the country.

(x). He formulated policies for good governance.

(xi). He prepared and presented an annual budget to the National Assembly for approval

(xii). He was empowered to declare a state of emergency/maintenance of law and order.

(xiii). He presided over executive council.

(xiv). He received ambassadors from other countries/ He maintained external relations with other countries.

(xv). He could declare war subject to the approval of the National Assembly.

(xvi). Declare National Assembly close i.e. prorogue

Question 9

What mechanism should be put in place to forestall military intervention in politics?

Answer

The following are the mechanisms that can be used to prevent military intervention in government.

(i). The existence and promotion of democratically elected government

(ii). Promotion of good governance.

(iii). Eradication of corruption and abuse of office.

(iv). Avoidance of electoral malpractice by encouraging free and fair elections.

(v). Encouraging national unity by suppressing tribalism and nepotism.

(vi). Enhanced conditions of services for the military.

(vii). Proper civic education for the armed forces on their role/Enlightenment for military on their roles.

(viii). Promotion of accountability and transparency in governance.

(ix). Appeal to civilian administration to conform to the constitutional tenure of office.

(x). Equitable distribution of both human and natural resources.

(xi). Entrenchment of the provision in the constitution to forestall or discourage military intervention in politics.

(xii). Non-recognition of military governments by the international community or organizations, e.g. ECOWAS, Commonwealth, etc.

(xiii). Responsive and responsible/good leadership

(xiv). Imposition of sanctions by the international community

(xv). Avoidance of political unrest/rivalry among politicians.

(xvi). Maintenance of cordial relationship among politicians. 

(xvii). Civil disobedience/resistance by the populace and interest groups

Question 10

State five obstacles to the implementation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) aims and objectives.

Answer

(i) Intra and inter-state conflicts/ political instability, e.g. Mali; DR Congo etc.

(ii). Fear or domination of smaller states by larger ones.

(iii). Inability of member states to pay their dues.

(iv). Inability to implement most of its policies.

(v). Language barrier.

(vi). The absence of an Africa High Command/ standing army.

(vii). Over-reliance of member states on their colonial masters.

(viii). The use of different currencies among member states. 

(ix). Membership of other international organizations e.g. OPEC, Commonwealth, etc.

(x). Poverty, famine, ignorance, and diseases.

(xi). International terrorism.

(xii). Problems of refugees and internally displaced people.

(xiii). Over-dependence on external sources for development.

(xiv). Ideological differences.

(xv). The reluctance on the part of member-state to surrender their sovereignty for a common cause.

(xvi). Lack of consensus on international issues.

(xvii). Frequent border disputes.

Question 1

(a) Define society

Answer

A group of people who share similar values, laws, traditions living in organized communities for mutual benefit. 

 

(b) identify four features of a society

Answer

i. It is characterized by a unique culture

ii. Membership of a society is voluntary 

iii. The rules and regulations of a society are binding on all residents 

iv. Roles in the society are dynamic 

v. It is controlled by rules/regulations, norms, conventions, and customs 

vi. It applies sanctions on its members as a means of ensuring or effecting discipline 

vii. It also applies the use of coercive means to ensure compliance with norms, rules and customs 

viii. It is permanent in nature 

ix. It is characterized by cooperation, competition and conflicts 

x. Members depend on one another for survival 

Question 2

(a) What is communalism

Answer

Communalism is a sociopolitical system based on common ownership of land in which the sense of togetherness in the community is the factor of unity. It is also a system in which the mode of production, the land and what it produced belonged to all members of the community and are equitably distributed or shared 

 

(b) State four difference between feudalism and communalism.

Answer

i. There is dictatorship in feudalism whereas there is none in communalism

ii. In feudalism, there is compulsory service of the vassals/serfs to the lords while in communalism there is no compulsory service

iii. There is discrimination in income distribution in feudalism. In communalism, there is an equitable distribution 

iv. There is segregation/class status in feudalism while in communalism there is an equitable distribution 

v. The feudal system has conquest and subjugation as its feature while communalism is based on peace and tranquility 

The land belongs to the lord in feudalism, while in communalism the land is communally owned 

vii. There is feudal lord in feudalism while there is no lordship in communalism 

viii. Feudalism is a more advanced political system while communalism is operated in a primitive, less advanced society

Question 3

(a). Highlight three methods of acquiring citizenship

Answer

i. Citizenship can be acquired by birth i.e born by parents who are citizens of the country/state

ii. Citizenship by registration i.e through marriage 

iii. Citizenship can be  acquired by naturalization: a citizen of another country can apply for citizenship of another country, where he/she resides 

iv. Citizenship by descent or when grandparents claimed to have migrated from somewhere 

v. Adoption through a legal process 

vi. Honorary/conferment by the state 

vii. Conquest through wars/subjugation 

viii. Foundling: this citizenship involves rescuing children on the streets 

 

(b). Outline two conditions an alien must satisfy before becoming a citizen of another country.

Answer

i. The alien must have good character or of good reputation 

ii. The alien must have married a citizen for not less than a period of five years 

iii. He or she must have lived in the country for a very long period of time which may range from 15-20 years 

iv. The alien must have renounced his/her former nationality 

v. The applicant for the citizenship must take the oath of allegiance 

vi. He/She must be of a mature age i.e eighteen years 

vii. The alien must be capable of contributing meaningfully to the advancement and progress of the country 

viii. He/She must be acceptable to the locality where he/she is residing 

Question 4

(a) Define opinion poll.

Answer

An opinion poll is a scientific method of measuring views, opinions, and choice of the people based on the predication of social, political and economic issues facing a state. e.g. Popularity of a government or predicting election results.

 

(b). State any four factors that make the conduct of opinion poll unreliable in West Africa

Answer

(i). Lack of expertise knowledge by officials conducting the polls.

(ii). Reliable methods which may produce accurate results are expensive 

(iii). High level of illiteracy and ignorance among the people.

(iv). Problems of analyzing statistical data/poor knowledge of statistical analysis.

(v). Lack of objectivity among the respondents/ interviewees.

(vi). People get scared of being interviewed.

(vii). Poor communication network

(viii). Lack of objectivity among the pollsters.

(ix). Poor funding of poll

(x). Poor knowledge of instrument design and administration e.g. misleading sampling techniques, incomplete or inaccurate questions and structured interviews formats.

(xi). Principle of confidentiality in the civil and public service

(xii). Falsification of information/data by both sources and data collectors.

(xiii). Nature of Government e.g. military/civilian

Question 5

(a). Define a constituency

Answer

A constituency is an electoral district where the electorate exercises their right to elect their representatives into government/parliament.

 

(b). Highlight any four merits of the singular member constituency.

Answer

(i) Community support: single-member constituency encourages candidates who are community-based

(ii). Better knowledge of candidates: it enables the voters to have better knowledge of their candidates.

(iii). Active interest: It stimulates the interests of the voters in the election.

(iv). Easy to operate: It is easy to practices as the winners emerge easily.

(v). Reduce cost: It is not costly as opposed to multi-member constituency elections where election materials and personnel are fewer.

(vi). Promotes political stability: The system makes it easy for a party/candidate to win a majority in the legislature and thus maintain political stability.

(vii). The constituencies are small and therefore it makes accountability to be enforced.

(viii). The small size of the constituencies make personal contacts between voters and representatives possible and easier. 

Question 6

Highlight five features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial political system in Nigeria

Answer

(i). Centralization of authority and Hierarchy in governance: The Emir was the head of government. He was assisted by appointed chiefs. E.g. Madawaki, Galadima, Waziri.

(ii). Payment of tributes to sustain administration: There were rates paid by the people for land, property, and cattle.

(iii). The size of the Emirate system was large: The emirate occupied a large expanse of land with many populations.

(iv). Stratification: The Hausa/ Fulani society was segmented into upper, middle, and lower classes, and the Talakawas.

(v). Army: Every emirate kept a standing army under the control of Madawaki.

(vi). The judiciary: The emirate judicial system was based on the sharia laws headed by Alkali and the Emir's court was the highest court.

(vii). Rulership was for life.

(viii). Succession to the throne was hereditary.

(ix). The political system was based on theocracy e.g. Islamic religion.

(x). Emirs were empowered to make laws where Islamic laws were silent.

(xi) Emirs were empowered to pronounce death sentences on defaulters.

(xii). There was regularised system of taxation in operation.

(xiii). Executive, Legislative and Judicial powers were concentrated on the Emir.

Question 7

(a) What is proto-Nationalism?

Answer

Proto-nationalism; denotes that the activities of the nationalist movements were geared towards reforms and participation of the natives in the colonial administration rather than for immediate self-government.

 

(b). Identify four features of proto-nationalism.

Answer

(i). Demands of the nationalists were aimed at reforms and participation in the colonial administration.

(ii). Movements formed under proto-nationalism were elitist, i.e. domination by the elites.

(iii). The proto-nationalism organizers employed constitutional and non-violent means in seeking redress.

(iv). The leaders were conservative their activities were restricted to the urban centers.

(v) There was the formation of inter-territorial movements such as the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA).

(vi) It was also characterized by the formation of youth movements e.g Gold Coast Congress etc.

(vii). Their activities were more popular along the coastal areas.

(viii). Most of the movements were centred on personalities whose deaths led to their collapse.

(ix). Most of the leaders were either publishers or editors of newspapers. These newspapers were used to pursue their nationalist objectives. 

Question 8

Highlight five functions of the president in the 1989 constitution of Nigeria

Answer

(i). The President is the Chief Executive of the country who performed the day-to-day administration of the country. 

(ii). He inaugurated the National Assembly at the beginning of each session. 

(iii). He assented to bills passed by the National Assembly into laws.

(iv). He appointed key officers e.g. ministers, ambassadors, the CBN Governor, Director of government agencies among others.

(v). He represented the country at international conferences like UNO, AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, etc.

(vi) He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

(vii). He performed ceremonial functions

(viii). He exercised the prerogative of mercy: He pardoned convicted persons or those found guilty of treasons.

(ix). He signed treaties with other countries on behalf of the country.

(x). He formulated policies for good governance.

(xi). He prepared and presented an annual budget to the National Assembly for approval

(xii). He was empowered to declare a state of emergency/maintenance of law and order.

(xiii). He presided over executive council.

(xiv). He received ambassadors from other countries/ He maintained external relations with other countries.

(xv). He could declare war subject to the approval of the National Assembly.

(xvi). Declare National Assembly close i.e. prorogue

Question 9

What mechanism should be put in place to forestall military intervention in politics?

Answer

The following are the mechanisms that can be used to prevent military intervention in government.

(i). The existence and promotion of democratically elected government

(ii). Promotion of good governance.

(iii). Eradication of corruption and abuse of office.

(iv). Avoidance of electoral malpractice by encouraging free and fair elections.

(v). Encouraging national unity by suppressing tribalism and nepotism.

(vi). Enhanced conditions of services for the military.

(vii). Proper civic education for the armed forces on their role/Enlightenment for military on their roles.

(viii). Promotion of accountability and transparency in governance.

(ix). Appeal to civilian administration to conform to the constitutional tenure of office.

(x). Equitable distribution of both human and natural resources.

(xi). Entrenchment of the provision in the constitution to forestall or discourage military intervention in politics.

(xii). Non-recognition of military governments by the international community or organizations, e.g. ECOWAS, Commonwealth, etc.

(xiii). Responsive and responsible/good leadership

(xiv). Imposition of sanctions by the international community

(xv). Avoidance of political unrest/rivalry among politicians.

(xvi). Maintenance of cordial relationship among politicians. 

(xvii). Civil disobedience/resistance by the populace and interest groups

Question 10

State five obstacles to the implementation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) aims and objectives.

Answer

(i) Intra and inter-state conflicts/ political instability, e.g. Mali; DR Congo etc.

(ii). Fear or domination of smaller states by larger ones.

(iii). Inability of member states to pay their dues.

(iv). Inability to implement most of its policies.

(v). Language barrier.

(vi). The absence of an Africa High Command/ standing army.

(vii). Over-reliance of member states on their colonial masters.

(viii). The use of different currencies among member states. 

(ix). Membership of other international organizations e.g. OPEC, Commonwealth, etc.

(x). Poverty, famine, ignorance, and diseases.

(xi). International terrorism.

(xii). Problems of refugees and internally displaced people.

(xiii). Over-dependence on external sources for development.

(xiv). Ideological differences.

(xv). The reluctance on the part of member-state to surrender their sovereignty for a common cause.

(xvi). Lack of consensus on international issues.

(xvii). Frequent border disputes.