Quiz 2 of 14

2020 GOVERNMENT WAEC Theory Past Questions

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Question 1

(a) What is the political socialization?

Answer

It is the process by which the citizens acquire political values, attitudes, belief and form opinions about political systems and practices. The political knowledge acquired through political socialization helps the individual adapt to the political system and shapes his political behaviour.

 

(b) Identify four features of a Nation

Answer

A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or a common culture.

A nation has the following features:

Question 2

Highlight five features of Federalism

Answer

Federalism is a type of government where the power of government is constitutionally shared between the central government and other component units of government e.g. state government, regional government, provincial government, etc.

A Federal state has the following features:

  1. Sharing of Power: The constitution shares power between the central government and other component units of government into exclusive, concurrent, and residual lists.
  2. Two Levels of Government: There are two levels of government; the central government and the other component units of government e.g. state and local governments.
  3. Supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution guides the conduct of the rulers and the ruled.
  4. Existence of written constitution: The constitution is compiled in a single document e.g. Nigeria 1999 Constitution.
  5. Rigid Constitution: The amendment procedure is difficult and cumbersome.
  6. Bicameral Legislature: There is the existence of bicameral legislature at the centre and unicameral legislature at the state government level and local government level.
  7. Independent Judiciary: The judiciary is not under the control of other arms of government or the rich, it settle cases without fear or favour.
  8. Existence of Revenue Allocation System: There exists a revenue allocation formula for sharing resources among the component units of government.
  9. Dual Allegiance or Loyalty: the people are loyal to the central government and the component units of government.
  10. Denied Right of Secession: No part or group in a federation is allowed to break away.
  11. Nigeria's federalism has thirty-six (36) states plus the federal capital territory.

Question 3

(a) What is a public corporation?

Answer

A Public corporation may be defined as a government-owned enterprise or business set up by an Act of parliament to provide essential services for the people at a moderate price. In order words, it is a semi-autonomous business entity established by an Act of parliament at a reduced cost.

 

(b) Identify Four ways in which Public corporations are controlled

Answer

The operations of Public Corporations need to be controlled to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. The following methods are how public corporations can be controlled.

(i) Parliament/Legislative Control: There are different ways the legislature control public corporation.

(ii) Control by the executive through the minister: The minister can appoint and dismiss members of the Board of Directors.

Secondly, the minister can give broad policy guidelines to the board of a public corporation.

Thirdly, the minister can withhold subventions of public corporations for poor performance or even approve some of its projects.

Fourthly, the minister presents audited reports and accounts of public corporations to the legislature.

(iii) Financial Control through the office of Auditor-General of the Federation: The accounts of Public corporations are annually audited by the office of the Auditor –General of the Federation.

(iv) Judicial Control: The Court can declare actions of public corporations unconstitutional if there is any breach of the provisions of the Act that set it up.

Secondly, the Court can issue sanctions on them as well as grant injunctions to prevent public corporations from infringing on people’s rights.

(v) Public Control: Pressure groups, consumer associations help to control public corporations. They can petition, publicly criticize public corporations to force them to carry out their duties efficiently.

(vi) Media Control: The mass media controls public corporations through public discussions on their efficiency. They can expose their inefficiency.

(vii) Quality Assurance Control: The quality control bodies e.g. Standard Organization of Nigeria regulates the activities of public corporations.

(vii) Control by the Office of the Ombudsman or Public Complaint Commission: Ombudsman can entertain complaints on public corporations.

Question 4

Outline five ways in which public opinion is measured

Answer

The general view held by the majority of people in a community on a given public issue at a given time can be measured in the following ways:

Question 5

Explain five means of safeguarding the rights of citizens

Answer

Inalienable or basic rights citizens of a country enjoy can be safeguarded through the following ways:

  1. Citizen's rights can be safeguarded if fundamental human rights are included in the constitution.
  2. A state where rule of law is respected can protect rights.
  3. Citizens need to be aware of their rights and how to seek redress if their rights are violated.
  4. Fundamental human rights are best respected in countries that respect democratic principles.
  5. Efficient law enforcement agencies also help to protect fundamental human rights.
  6. If the capacity of human rights defenders and the National Human Rights Commission and Other Institutions that defend human rights are strengthened, the rights of the citizens can be best protected.
  7. Free and independent press or mass media can expose violating of fundamental human rights.
  8. Adequate checks and balances in the powers of government institutions and agencies protect rights.
  9. If legal aid or assistant is given to the poor and needy that cannot afford legal services to defend their cases in court can protect rights.
  10. Independent and impartial judiciary can administer free and fair judgments.
  11. Respect for international laws and conventions protects the rights of citizens.
  12. The existence of prerogative writs and their effective enforcement protects rights e.g. Quo Warranto, habeas corpus, writ of Mandamus.
  13. The existence of Civil Society Organizations and Pressure Groups can speak out and challenge violations of fundamental human rights of citizens.
  14. The office of the ombudsman or public complaint commission can protect rights. They can entertain complaints on violations of the rights of citizens.
  15. If Independent Electoral Commission conducts free and fair elections, citizens may not be denied their rights.
  16. The vigilance of opposition parties on issues of human rights violations can also protect the rights of citizens.

Question 6

Identify five Challenges faced by United Nations Organization

Answer

United Nations Organization is a global organization whose main aim is to maintain world peace and security. UNO is faced with a number of challenges among them are:

Question 7

Identify five differences between the crown colony and protectorate

Answer

A Crown Colony is a territory acquired by the British colonial government through settlement, cession, Conquest or purchase e.g. Lagos Crown Colony while Protectorate is the areas where the British Colony government offered their protection to through treaties.

The colonial government recognized the status of the traditional rules e.g. Northern and Southern protectorates in Nigeria.

The differences between the two include the following:

  1. In a Crown Colony, British officials directly administered the area while in a protectorate, they administered the area indirectly through the use of traditional rulers.
  2. An Act of parliament of the sovereign state created a crown colony while a protectorate was established by treaty agreement or proclamation.
  3. A Crown Colony was a legal possession of the British Monarchy while the Protectorate remained under the authority of the traditional rulers.
  4. Crown Colonies had no sovereignty but the protectorate retained their sovereignty and had their defense and external relations handled by the protector (colonial government).
  5. All activities of the Crown colony were controlled by the colonial government while the protectorate received only protection and acted independently.
  6. The Crown Colony was subjected to British common law while the protectorate was subjected to the traditions and customs of the people and traditional institutions.
  7. The Crown Colonies had a lot of infrastructural developments while the protectorate hardly experienced such development.
  8. To administer the crown colony was expensive but the administrative cost of protectorates was low.
  9. Africans in the Crown Colonies were treated as subjects while those in the protectorates were protected persons.
  10. People in the Crown Colonies were dominated and exploited unlike the people in the protectorate that were semi-autonomous.
  11. A Crown colony was a territory invaded by a larger power e.g. Britain which set up its government in the colony headed by a British official, “Governor” while a protectorate was a territory that was protected by a stronger power.
  12. A Crown Colony was administratively well structured with a colonial governor, legislative council, and executive council while the protectorate was ruled through the native authority system.

Question 8

(a) List three political parties and their leaders who contested the 1979 Presidential election in Nigeria

Answer

National Party of Nigeria (NPN) - AlhajiShehuShagari

Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) - Chief Obafemi Awolowo

Nigeria Peoples Party (NPP) - Nnamdi Azikiwe

People’s Redemption Party (PRP) - AlhajiAminu Kano

The Great Nigeria People’s Party (GNPP) - AlhajiWaziri Ibrahim.

 

(b) Highlight three failures of political parties in Nigeria since independence

Answer

Since independence in Nigeria, political parties have failed in the following areas:

Question 9

Highlight five weaknesses of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Answer

  1. The constitution gave 100 much powers to the Federal government. Many items are under the exclusive list of the central government.
  2. There is ambiguity in its definition of citizenship and indigenship.
  3. There is still dissatisfaction among the states and central government over the revenue allocation formula.
  4. The constitution failed to put into account Nigeria’s history or historical experience.
  5. The constitution protected some special interests. The constitution favoured some interests.
  6. The rotation of power enshrined in the constitution is ambiguous.
  7. The power of veto granted to the president can be abused as he can veto bills. This can make the president autocratic.
  8. The constitution is rigid. This makes the amendment procedure cumbersome.
  9. The constitution provided for a presidential system of government which is too costly and expensive to run.
  10. The constitution failed to spell out the roles of the Deputy Governor.
  11. The constitution contained some ambiguous provisions which require extra-judicial interpretations e.g. the power to create local government areas, control of revenue derived from onshore and offshore.
  12. The electoral system is still manually operated in spite of providing card-reading machines. The central database is still manually collated instead of using automated machines giving room for manipulation.
  13. Land reforms provided for in the constitution contradicts some existing extant laws.
  14. The procedure for state creation as contained in the constitution is difficult. Supreme Court had to give clarification on the case of central government versus Lagos State over the creation of local government areas in Lagos State.
  15. This is a problem with local government administration, funding, creation, and autonomy. The state government as provided by this constitution excessively control local government.
  16. The constitution has also played lip service to tackle the problem of gender disparity.

Question 10

 

(a) List three features of the Igbo Traditional Political System

Answer

The following are the features of the Igbo traditional political system:

 

(b) Identify four democratic tenets of the Igbo Traditional Political System

Answer

Question 1

(a) What is the political socialization?

Answer

It is the process by which the citizens acquire political values, attitudes, belief and form opinions about political systems and practices. The political knowledge acquired through political socialization helps the individual adapt to the political system and shapes his political behaviour.

 

(b) Identify four features of a Nation

Answer

A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or a common culture.

A nation has the following features:

Question 2

Highlight five features of Federalism

Answer

Federalism is a type of government where the power of government is constitutionally shared between the central government and other component units of government e.g. state government, regional government, provincial government, etc.

A Federal state has the following features:

  1. Sharing of Power: The constitution shares power between the central government and other component units of government into exclusive, concurrent, and residual lists.
  2. Two Levels of Government: There are two levels of government; the central government and the other component units of government e.g. state and local governments.
  3. Supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution guides the conduct of the rulers and the ruled.
  4. Existence of written constitution: The constitution is compiled in a single document e.g. Nigeria 1999 Constitution.
  5. Rigid Constitution: The amendment procedure is difficult and cumbersome.
  6. Bicameral Legislature: There is the existence of bicameral legislature at the centre and unicameral legislature at the state government level and local government level.
  7. Independent Judiciary: The judiciary is not under the control of other arms of government or the rich, it settle cases without fear or favour.
  8. Existence of Revenue Allocation System: There exists a revenue allocation formula for sharing resources among the component units of government.
  9. Dual Allegiance or Loyalty: the people are loyal to the central government and the component units of government.
  10. Denied Right of Secession: No part or group in a federation is allowed to break away.
  11. Nigeria's federalism has thirty-six (36) states plus the federal capital territory.

Question 3

(a) What is a public corporation?

Answer

A Public corporation may be defined as a government-owned enterprise or business set up by an Act of parliament to provide essential services for the people at a moderate price. In order words, it is a semi-autonomous business entity established by an Act of parliament at a reduced cost.

 

(b) Identify Four ways in which Public corporations are controlled

Answer

The operations of Public Corporations need to be controlled to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. The following methods are how public corporations can be controlled.

(i) Parliament/Legislative Control: There are different ways the legislature control public corporation.

(ii) Control by the executive through the minister: The minister can appoint and dismiss members of the Board of Directors.

Secondly, the minister can give broad policy guidelines to the board of a public corporation.

Thirdly, the minister can withhold subventions of public corporations for poor performance or even approve some of its projects.

Fourthly, the minister presents audited reports and accounts of public corporations to the legislature.

(iii) Financial Control through the office of Auditor-General of the Federation: The accounts of Public corporations are annually audited by the office of the Auditor –General of the Federation.

(iv) Judicial Control: The Court can declare actions of public corporations unconstitutional if there is any breach of the provisions of the Act that set it up.

Secondly, the Court can issue sanctions on them as well as grant injunctions to prevent public corporations from infringing on people’s rights.

(v) Public Control: Pressure groups, consumer associations help to control public corporations. They can petition, publicly criticize public corporations to force them to carry out their duties efficiently.

(vi) Media Control: The mass media controls public corporations through public discussions on their efficiency. They can expose their inefficiency.

(vii) Quality Assurance Control: The quality control bodies e.g. Standard Organization of Nigeria regulates the activities of public corporations.

(vii) Control by the Office of the Ombudsman or Public Complaint Commission: Ombudsman can entertain complaints on public corporations.

Question 4

Outline five ways in which public opinion is measured

Answer

The general view held by the majority of people in a community on a given public issue at a given time can be measured in the following ways:

Question 5

Explain five means of safeguarding the rights of citizens

Answer

Inalienable or basic rights citizens of a country enjoy can be safeguarded through the following ways:

  1. Citizen's rights can be safeguarded if fundamental human rights are included in the constitution.
  2. A state where rule of law is respected can protect rights.
  3. Citizens need to be aware of their rights and how to seek redress if their rights are violated.
  4. Fundamental human rights are best respected in countries that respect democratic principles.
  5. Efficient law enforcement agencies also help to protect fundamental human rights.
  6. If the capacity of human rights defenders and the National Human Rights Commission and Other Institutions that defend human rights are strengthened, the rights of the citizens can be best protected.
  7. Free and independent press or mass media can expose violating of fundamental human rights.
  8. Adequate checks and balances in the powers of government institutions and agencies protect rights.
  9. If legal aid or assistant is given to the poor and needy that cannot afford legal services to defend their cases in court can protect rights.
  10. Independent and impartial judiciary can administer free and fair judgments.
  11. Respect for international laws and conventions protects the rights of citizens.
  12. The existence of prerogative writs and their effective enforcement protects rights e.g. Quo Warranto, habeas corpus, writ of Mandamus.
  13. The existence of Civil Society Organizations and Pressure Groups can speak out and challenge violations of fundamental human rights of citizens.
  14. The office of the ombudsman or public complaint commission can protect rights. They can entertain complaints on violations of the rights of citizens.
  15. If Independent Electoral Commission conducts free and fair elections, citizens may not be denied their rights.
  16. The vigilance of opposition parties on issues of human rights violations can also protect the rights of citizens.

Question 6

Identify five Challenges faced by United Nations Organization

Answer

United Nations Organization is a global organization whose main aim is to maintain world peace and security. UNO is faced with a number of challenges among them are:

Question 7

Identify five differences between the crown colony and protectorate

Answer

A Crown Colony is a territory acquired by the British colonial government through settlement, cession, Conquest or purchase e.g. Lagos Crown Colony while Protectorate is the areas where the British Colony government offered their protection to through treaties.

The colonial government recognized the status of the traditional rules e.g. Northern and Southern protectorates in Nigeria.

The differences between the two include the following:

  1. In a Crown Colony, British officials directly administered the area while in a protectorate, they administered the area indirectly through the use of traditional rulers.
  2. An Act of parliament of the sovereign state created a crown colony while a protectorate was established by treaty agreement or proclamation.
  3. A Crown Colony was a legal possession of the British Monarchy while the Protectorate remained under the authority of the traditional rulers.
  4. Crown Colonies had no sovereignty but the protectorate retained their sovereignty and had their defense and external relations handled by the protector (colonial government).
  5. All activities of the Crown colony were controlled by the colonial government while the protectorate received only protection and acted independently.
  6. The Crown Colony was subjected to British common law while the protectorate was subjected to the traditions and customs of the people and traditional institutions.
  7. The Crown Colonies had a lot of infrastructural developments while the protectorate hardly experienced such development.
  8. To administer the crown colony was expensive but the administrative cost of protectorates was low.
  9. Africans in the Crown Colonies were treated as subjects while those in the protectorates were protected persons.
  10. People in the Crown Colonies were dominated and exploited unlike the people in the protectorate that were semi-autonomous.
  11. A Crown colony was a territory invaded by a larger power e.g. Britain which set up its government in the colony headed by a British official, “Governor” while a protectorate was a territory that was protected by a stronger power.
  12. A Crown Colony was administratively well structured with a colonial governor, legislative council, and executive council while the protectorate was ruled through the native authority system.

Question 8

(a) List three political parties and their leaders who contested the 1979 Presidential election in Nigeria

Answer

National Party of Nigeria (NPN) - AlhajiShehuShagari

Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) - Chief Obafemi Awolowo

Nigeria Peoples Party (NPP) - Nnamdi Azikiwe

People’s Redemption Party (PRP) - AlhajiAminu Kano

The Great Nigeria People’s Party (GNPP) - AlhajiWaziri Ibrahim.

 

(b) Highlight three failures of political parties in Nigeria since independence

Answer

Since independence in Nigeria, political parties have failed in the following areas:

Question 9

Highlight five weaknesses of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Answer

  1. The constitution gave 100 much powers to the Federal government. Many items are under the exclusive list of the central government.
  2. There is ambiguity in its definition of citizenship and indigenship.
  3. There is still dissatisfaction among the states and central government over the revenue allocation formula.
  4. The constitution failed to put into account Nigeria’s history or historical experience.
  5. The constitution protected some special interests. The constitution favoured some interests.
  6. The rotation of power enshrined in the constitution is ambiguous.
  7. The power of veto granted to the president can be abused as he can veto bills. This can make the president autocratic.
  8. The constitution is rigid. This makes the amendment procedure cumbersome.
  9. The constitution provided for a presidential system of government which is too costly and expensive to run.
  10. The constitution failed to spell out the roles of the Deputy Governor.
  11. The constitution contained some ambiguous provisions which require extra-judicial interpretations e.g. the power to create local government areas, control of revenue derived from onshore and offshore.
  12. The electoral system is still manually operated in spite of providing card-reading machines. The central database is still manually collated instead of using automated machines giving room for manipulation.
  13. Land reforms provided for in the constitution contradicts some existing extant laws.
  14. The procedure for state creation as contained in the constitution is difficult. Supreme Court had to give clarification on the case of central government versus Lagos State over the creation of local government areas in Lagos State.
  15. This is a problem with local government administration, funding, creation, and autonomy. The state government as provided by this constitution excessively control local government.
  16. The constitution has also played lip service to tackle the problem of gender disparity.

Question 10

 

(a) List three features of the Igbo Traditional Political System

Answer

The following are the features of the Igbo traditional political system:

 

(b) Identify four democratic tenets of the Igbo Traditional Political System

Answer