Methods of Prevention and Control
(i) Proper Hygiene: Good hygiene should be practiced at all times after handling animals to avoid contracting a zoonotic disease.
The following steps should be taken for proper hygiene:
- Bushes around the animal’s pen and poultry house should be cut.
- Infected animal should be separated from uninfected animals
- Feeding and water troughs should be washed always
- The houses should be well ventilated and kept dry to avoid the buildup of disease pathogens.
(ii) Proper Vaccination: This is one of the most important measures in controlling farm animal diseases. Vaccination is the administration of correct and precise drugs to treat certain diseases in farm animals. The best time to administer vaccines is the early stage of disease infection, routine vaccinations should be carried out for specific diseases e.g, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, etc.
(iii) Isolation (Quarantine): This is strict isolation to prevent the spread of diseases and pests. It is normally carried out at the airport, seaport, and at the borders. It is done to checkmate the imported agricultural materials. Sick animals should be separated from healthy ones for proper observation. Quarantine is done to prevent foreign diseases. Only the animals free from the disease are allowed into the country.
(iv) Rearing of Disease resistant Breeds: Some animals are reared because they are resistant or tolerant to some diseases. For Example Ndama breed of cattle is not common in the southern part of the country, because it is resistant to Trypanosomiosis disease while the muturu cattle are tolerant of disease.
(v) Good Nutrition: Animals that are provided with all the essential nutrients, can be able to withstand the effect of disease attacks. Animals should be provided with good quality of feed to promote proper growth, production, and good development.
(vi) Deworming: The practice of given appropriate drugs to farm animals to expel internal parasites, should be encouraged.
(vii) Dipping: This is the dipping of animals in chemical solutions so as to control external parasites like ticks. Farmers are encouraged to dip their farm animals regularly.
(viii) Debeaking: This is practiced in poultry management, so as to reduce the sharp pointed end of the beak to prevent cannibalism in poultry and other vices that can cause low egg production or death of the birds.
(ix) Dehorning: This is the removal of horns from the head of a young animal. Example, cattle, and sheep. These practices help to prevent injuries among the animals or the animal’s attendants.
(x) Culling: This is the removal of sick animals from healthy animals. Animals that are sick, should be culled when necessary.