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The two main parts of Crop Plants are the shoot and the root. The shoot consists of all parts of the plant above the ground, which include the leaves, stem, branches, buds, flowers and fruits, while the root is the part of the plant below the ground.

Parts of a plant

The organs of the plant can be divided into two:

a. Vegetative organs, and

b. Reproductive organs.

The vegetative parts of a plant are the root, stem and leaves, while the reproductive parts are the flowers and fruits.

Root System:

The functions of roots are to, anchor the plant to the soil, and absorb mineral water and mineral salts from the soil. In some plants, they serve as storage organs, for example, onions, potatoes and cassava.

There are two types of root systems;

a. Tap-root system

b. Fibrous root system.

In a tap root system, there is one major root from which various branches or lateral roots arise. A fibrous root system consists of similar fine roots all of which grow from the base of the plant stem.



The stem bears the leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. Its functions include support to the leaves, flowers and fruits. It also transports water and nutrients from the soil and sugar from the leaves.


A typical leaf consists of a stalk called a petiole and a blade called the lamina. They contain a very special substance called chlorophyll, which helps in manufacturing food for plants in the presence of sunlight, through a process called photosynthesis.



The flower is the reproductive part of flowering plants. it is the region where the male and female organs produce the pollen grain and ovary respectively.



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