Deficiency diseases refer to those diseases which are caused by a lack of, or shortage of specific nutrients, in the meals we take. They are disorders caused by a lack of specific essential substances such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids.
More broadly, the term applies to conditions in which the important substances are present but not absorbed, or in which the organism fails to produce a natural and essential substance. Such diseases as beriberi, scurvy, pellagra, and rickets are caused by a lack of particular vitamins, and recovery is dramatically prompt when adequate quantities of the vitamins are supplied in the diet.
Deficiency Diseases | Causes and Symptoms:
Below are some deficiency diseases, their causes, and symptoms;
|1||Kwashiorkor||Lack of protein in diet, common in children||Enlarged stomach, child looks miserable, growth retardant |
|2||Marasmus||Protein deficiency||Stunted growth, child looks like a skeleton|
|3||Anaemia||Inadequate iron in the diet||Weakness, Fainting |
|4||Beriberi||Deficiency of vitamin B (Thiamine)||Nervous disorders (anxiety) fatigue, loss of appetite|
|5||Pellagra||Lack of vitamin B3 (Niacin)||Skin disorders, soreness at the corners of the mouth|
|6||Scurvy||Deficiency of vitamin C||Bleeding gums, weak teeth|
|7||Rickets||Deficiency of vitamin D||Deformed bones|
|8||Night blindness||Lack of Vitamin A||Inability to see in dim light|
|9||Goiter||Lack of iodine in diet||Enlargement of thyroid gland i.e swelling beneath the jaw |
|10||Oedema||Excess sodium in the body fluid||Swelling ankles, weakness, common in adults and pregnant women|
1. List the 6 (six) classes of food.
2. Define balanced diet.
3. State the functions of the following classes of food:
(c) Fats and oil