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The methods of teaching and learning Social-Studies include the following:

1. Inquiry or Investigation method.
2. Interview method.
3. Observation or Excursion method.
4. Expository method.
5. Discussion method.

1. Inquiry or Investigation Method:

In this method, students are exposed to facts concerning certain issues, from which they gather useful information on their own. This method is focused on the student because the students exercise full participation, by learning how to think and discover the facts themselves from people, and books.

2. Interview Method:

Here the student gathers information on their own by asking questions. This method is similar to the Inquiry or Investigation method. It is also student-centred.

This method enables the students to learn how to draw up questions, which they seek answers from other knowledgeable, and experienced people. The students use the answers provided to obtain information on a particular topic, or issue, in a Social Studies class.

3. Observation or Excursion Method:

While learning Social Studies, students discover things themselves through the process of observation, which could take place at home, school, in their community, visits to important places on an excursion, travelling around and outside the country, etc. This is also a student-centred method of learning Social Studies.

For example, students can actively participate in or observe a marriage ceremony, attend court proceedings, visit banks, markets, etc.

4. Expository Method:

Here the teacher explains the contents of the Social Studies subject matter or topic, and the students absorb and use this information to answer questions in a test, or an examination. This method is Teacher-centered, making the students passive in the learning process.

5. Discussion Method:

This method involves both the teacher and the students, learning takes place through discussions by sharing views and ideas. The teacher leads and guides the discussion and every member of the class participates, including the teacher.

There is no single method that is all-encompassing in learning Social Studies. A combination of two, three, or more methods are needed, to help both the students and teachers achieve their best, in the process of teaching and learning Social Studies at Junior Secondary School.


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