JSS2: MATHEMATICS  1ST TERM

Properties of Whole Numbers I  Week 14 Topics1 Quiz

Properties of Whole Numbers II  Week 24 Topics1 Quiz

Properties of Whole Numbers III  Week 35 Topics1 Quiz

Indices  Week 42 Topics1 Quiz

Laws of Indices  Week 55 Topics1 Quiz

Whole Numbers & Decimal Numbers  Week 64 Topics1 Quiz

Standard Form  Week 73 Topics1 Quiz

Significant Figures (S.F)  Week 84 Topics1 Quiz

Fractions, Ratios, Proportions & Percentages I  Week 96 Topics1 Quiz

Fractions, Ratios, Proportions & Percentages II  Week 104 Topics1 Quiz

Fractions, Ratios, Proportions & Percentages III  Week 113 Topics1 Quiz

Approximation & Estimation  Week 121 Topic1 Quiz
Factors, Multiples & Prime factors
Topic Content:
 Meaning of Factors of a Number
 Meaning of Multiples of a Number
 Meaning of Prime Number
 Meaning of Prime Factor
 Express a Number as a Product of its Prime Factors
 Worked Examples
Factors:
The factors of a number are the whole numbers that divide the number without any remainder. e.g. the factors of 18 may be found as follows:
Factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
Multiples:
A multiple of a whole number is obtained by multiplying it by any whole number e.g.
The multiples of 4 are
4 × 1, 4 × 2, 4 × 3, 4 × 4, 4 × 5, 4 × 6 …..
which are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, …. etc
Worked Example 1.2.1:
a. Find all the factors of 36
b. State which of these factors are even
c. State which of these factors are odd
Solution
a. Factors of 36 = 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 12, 18 and 36
b. Even numbers are 2, 4, 12, 18 and 36
c. Odd numbers are 1, 3 and 9
Worked Example 1.2.2:
a. Write the first five multiples of 12
b. Which of them are multiples of 8
Solution:
a. Multiples of 12 are
12 × 1 = 12
12 × 2 = 24
12 × 3 = 36
12 × 4 = 48
12 × 5 = 60
Multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60
b. The multiples of 8 in 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60
are 24 and 48
because;
24 = 3 × 8
48 = 8 × 6
Prime Number:
A prime number is a number that can only be divided by 1 and itself. It has only two factors.
Examples are;
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 83, 89, 91, 97 etc.
Prime factor:
A prime factor is a factor that is also a prime number e.g.
The factors of 20 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, and 20.
Out of these the prime factors of 18 are 2 and 5.
Product of Prime factors:
A given number can be expressed as a product of its prime factors. This is achieved by successive or repeated division by prime factors.
Worked Example 1.2.3:
Express the following numbers as a product of their prime factors. Express your answer in index form.
(a) 36
(b) 320
(c) 336
Solution
(a) 36
36 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 = 2^{2} × 3^{2}
(b) 320
320 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 = 2^{6} × 5
(c) 336
336 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 7 = 2^{4} × 3 × 7