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JSS3: BASIC SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Family Traits | Week 1
    6Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Environmental Hazards I - Soil Erosion | Week 2
    3Topics
  3. Environmental Hazards I - Flooding | Week 3
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Environmental Hazards II - Bush Burning | Week 4
    4Topics
  5. Environmental Hazards II - Deforestation | Week 5
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Environmental Hazards III - Desertification | Week 6
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Environmental Hazards III - Description of the Ozone Layer and its Location in the Atmosphere | Week 7
    3Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Drug and Substance Abuse | Week 8
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. Resources from Living Things | Week 9
    4Topics
  10. Resources from Non-Living Things | Week 10
    2Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
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We can use vegetables that we grow for their leaves, fruits, stems, and roots. There are different types of plant resources. These include food crops, cash crops, crops for textiles, wood, ornamental and medicinal plants.

a. Food Crops:

These are resources from the environment used mainly as food. They are categorized into:

1. Leafy vegetables: As you know, we eat these, either cooked or fresh, as salads. They provide us with minerals (including calcium and iron) and vitamins (particularly Vitamins A and C) which our bodies need. Examples include lettuce, Cabbage, Talinum, etc.

2. Fruits: Examples are peppers, tomatoes, okro, mangoes, bananas, pawpaws, dates, oranges, lemons, pineapples, etc. they provide the body with mineral salts and vitamins.

vegetables-and-fruits
Fruits & Vegetables.

3. Seeds: Examples of seeds include beans, maize, millet, sorghum, rice, barley, and wheat. We eat many of them as cooked foods. They provide us with starch, fat, and protein. We use barley for brewing beer, and wheat to make flour, used in baking bread and cakes. We also use sorghum and maize to make some local drinks.

4. Underground crops: These include stem tubers or swollen stems such as yam, cocoyam, and Irish potato, root tubers such as cassava, sweet potato, carrot, radish, and bulbs like onions.  They are called underground crops because they grow under the ground. They provide us mainly with starch. 

5. Oil plants: Examples are oil palm, groundnut, cotton, olive, etc. We produce cooking oils from their seeds or fruits. The oil is also used for making margarine and other products.

b. Crops for Textiles:

These are crops that we used to make cloth, rope, baskets, and dyes.

1. Cloth: The fibres produced by cotton plants around the seeds are used for making cloth.

2. Ropes: Materials for sacks and nets are made from different kinds of plant, like sisal, sorrel plant, guinea hemp, and jute. We also obtain fibres from the Baobab, Bauhinia, and Greutvia.

3. Baskets: Palm leaves provide materials for making hats, bags, or baskets.

4. Dyes: We obtain dyes from many plants.

Agricultural Produce - Cotton
Cotton Plants are used to make cloth.

c. Cash Crops:

Cash crops are plants cultivated by the farmer for ale and to make a profit. They are also called export crops and they include;

1. Beverage crops: Beverages made from crops include alcoholic drinks such as beer, wine and spirits. Popular crops used in alcoholic beverages are sorghum, barley, rice, coconut, palms, grapes, sugarcane and maize etc.

Beverages also include non-alcoholic drinks such as tea, coffee, chocolate, fruit and vegetable juices. The common non-alcoholic beverage crops are coffee, tea, cocoa, sugarcane, sugar beet, coconut, lemon grass, etc.

2. Oil crops likeoil palm, groundnut, cotton, olive, etc, are sold for an income.

d. Wood crops:

Wood crops provide us with hardwood which is used in the building of houses, furniture making, etc. Some provide us with softwood which is used for pulp and paper production. Plants also provide us with firewood which is a source of energy. Examples of wood crops are iroko, obeche, mahogany, etc.

mahogany cabinet
Cabinet furniture made from Mahogany wood.

e. Medicinal Plants:

The majority of medicines, both tablets, and syrups, as well as those in powder form, are derived from plant roots, barks, and leaves. Some plants can be prepared as herbs, for example, lemongrass, pawpaw leaves, etc. The herbs are used to cure some diseases like malaria, pile and heal wounds.

Paw paw leaves
Pawpaw leaves are used in the treatment of Malaria.

f. Ornamental Plants:

These are plants grown for decoration, rather than food or other by-products. They are usually grown in the flower garden for the display of their flowers. Examples are Tulips, Pride of Barbados, Rose Plants, etc.

ornamental flowers are usually grown in the flower garden for the display of their flowers.
Ornamental flowers are usually grown in the flower garden for the display of their flowers.

g. Compost and Manure:

Compost is a mixture of ingredients used to fertilize and improve the soil. It is commonly prepared by decomposing plants. One of the most obvious choices, for making compost from plants, is any type of legume, like clover or alfalfa. 

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