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JSS3: BASIC SCIENCE - 2ND TERM

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Transmitting and distributing power at low frequency requires the use of several components but the most basic are the following:

Circuit breaker: The circuit breaker helps in protecting the electrical appliances against earth facet and overload current and it is usually installed at both ends of the transformer terminals.

Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker

Transformers: These devices step up or down voltage which contains internal winding of wires in different sizes depending on the voltage of the capacity.

Transformer
Transformer

Fuse: A fuse is simply a short length of wire of flow melting point connected to the ‘live’ wire of an electric circuit. Its purpose is to automatically open the circuit (cut off current flow) whenever excess current might destroy the wiring or the appliance connected to it.

Fuse
Fuse

When a current above a predetermined value flows in the circuit to which a fuse is connected. The heat developed in the fuse wire melts the wire and breaks the circuit; thereby, cutting off further current flow.  The fuse thus acts like a safety device protecting electrical components in the circuit from serious damage due to excessive current.

The ‘fuse rating’ is the maximum safe current permitted to flow in it before the fuse breaks.

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