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As a result of the difference in stability of different nuclei, there are four types of nuclear reactions.

1. Radioactive decay: This refers to the emission of an alpha particle (α), a beta particle (β), or gamma radiation (γ) and the formation of a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus.

2. Nuclear Disintegration: A nucleus is bombarded with alpha particles, particles, protons, deuterons (deuterium nuclei, \( \scriptsize _{1} ^{2} \textrm {H}\)), neutrons, or other particles. The unstable nucleus emits a proton or a neutron and becomes more stable in a process called nuclear disintegration.

3. Fission: This refers to the process in which a very heavy nucleus splits to form medium-mass nuclei.

4. Fusion: This is the process in which light mass nuclei combine to form heavier, more stable nuclei.  


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