Types of Furnaces used in Making Metals
Bessemer Converter: The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open-hearth furnace.
Open-Hearth Furnace: This is a furnace in which excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
Blast Furnace: This furnace is used to convert iron ore to pig iron through a process called smelting.
Cupola Furnace: The cupola furnace is a melting device used to melt cast iron, bronze, and other alloying elements. It is mainly used to convert iron to cast iron.
Electric Arc Furnace: This furnace is generally used to produce special-purpose steel such as stainless steel and other alloyed steel. This furnace generates its heat from an electric arc within the furnace.
Crucible Furnace: Crucible furnaces are one of the oldest and simplest types of furnaces. They are used in the production of non-ferrous metals or metals with low melting points.
Reverberatory Furnace: Reverberatory furnace is a furnace that is mainly used for the extraction of tin, copper, aluminum, and nickel metals. The furnace is mostly used for smelting and refining these materials. It is also used in the production of certain concretes and cements.