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These consequences are categorized into

  • Physical Consequences
  • Social Consequences
  • Psychological Consequences

Physical Consequences:

These are the negative and outward results of human trafficking on the victims and society. The physical consequences include;

1. Physical Injuries: These are marks on the body, or loss of parts of the body, etc such as burns, bruises, wounds, cuts, dislocations, etc. which are usually inflicted on the victims through physical abuse and maltreatment.

2. Sexual Abuse: Human trafficking victims are likely to be sexually abused or exploited especially during the process of moving the victims from one location to another. There are usually cases of rape and indiscriminate sexual intercourse between some perpetrators and the victims.

3. Stigmatization: The victims of human trafficking are stigmatized when they are with their masters and even when they return home due to the inhuman acts they are exposed to. In their masters’ houses, they are seen and treated as second-class citizens.

4. Health Hazards: Most of the victims are exposed to health hazards and challenges due to indiscriminate sex which often leads to contracting Sexually Transmitted Diseases and other deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. Some may end up with health challenges due to the physical consequences of trafficking.

5. Death: Death is the most fatal consequence of human trafficking. Most victims, who have experienced sexual abuse, and rape, and have been exposed to health hazards may end up dying. Some may not be able to cope and may end up committing suicide.

Social Consequences:

These also have effects on the individual and society. These include;

1. Loss of Human Resources: The loss of youths, children, and women will have an effect on the manpower of the nation which will further affect the socio-economic development of the nation.

2. Separation from Loved Ones: Children and the victims that are trafficked are separated from their loved ones, thereby denying the mutual love that is supposed to exist among the family members. This can make such victims become hostile in the near future.

3. Crime: One of the social consequences is a high rate of crime. The victims due to lack of proper upbringing can get involved in criminal acts such as armed robbery, cultism, prostitution, unruly behaviour, etc, thereby causing social problems in society.

4. Fear and Anxiety: These acts of moving people usually bring fear and anxiety hereby causing insecurity in society.

5. Migration: Human trafficking involves the movement of people, this brings about migration which in effect populates the urban areas, and depopulates the rural areas.

6. Social Disorder: Victims of human trafficking become maladjusted in society, meaning they fail to cope with the demands of a normal social environment.

Psychological Consequences:

The traumatic effects of human trafficking can have short and long-term effects on the minds of the victims. These psychological effects may lead to mental health concerns and substance use.

Possible psychological effects of human trafficking include:

1. Depression: Depression is a common mental health problem that involves a low mood and a loss of interest in activities. This is a psychological effect on victims of human trafficking and it leads to feeling unworthy, lacking motivation, isolation from loved ones, substance abuse and having abnormal/suicidal thoughts.

2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Victims of human trafficking may experience unpleasant thoughts and images out of nowhere, and flashbacks of the inhumane treatment they received. These are all symptoms of PTSD and may affect their ability to cope in the present.

3. Anxiety Disorder: This includes panic disorder. The bad experiences of victims of human trafficking may leave them anxious and in constant fear and worry. They may end up having trouble changing routines or trusting new people and situations which affects the victims’ ability to function normally.

As a victim of human trafficking, the risk of developing a mental health disorder may be influenced by the following factors;

  • past experience of trauma/abuse
  • how long the traumatic experience lasted
  • level of violence
  • how isolated the victim was
  • how much support the victim gets from loved ones, friends, and professionals, following trafficking.


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