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SS1: BIOLOGY - 1ST TERM

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  1. Introduction to Biology | Week 1
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Recognizing Living Things | Week 2
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Organisation of Life | Week 3
    3 Topics
  4. Classification of Living Organisms | Week 4
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Kingdom Prokaryotae / Monera & Kingdom Protista | Week 5
    3 Topics
    |
    3 Quizzes
  6. Kingdom Fungi & Kingdom Plantae | Week 6
    9 Topics
    |
    2 Quizzes
  7. Kingdom Animalia I | Week 7
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Kingdom Animalia II | Week 8
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. The Cell | Week 9
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. The Cell Structure and Functions | Week 10
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. The Cell and its Environment | Week 11
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  12. Nutrition in Plants | Week 12
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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There has been a development from simple to complex, from less organized to the more organized plant body. Also, a move from aquatic habitat to terrestrial habitat as a result of which the advanced plants are less dependent on water and adapted to terrestrial life.

The Thalophytes (algae) are the most simple in the plant kingdom. They are aquatic, lack vascular tissues, no roots, stems or leaves.

The algae are followed by the bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) which are terrestrial, having progressed from water to land, though they still depend on water for reproduction. They are found in moist places, non-vascular, lack roots, stems and leaves, but have root-like, stem-like and leaf-like structures.

The pteridophytes are more complex than bryophytes. They are vascular and less dependent on water (terrestrial).

The spermatophytes are the most complex and most dominant land plant. They are fully adapted to land conditions, and not dependent on water, with pollination being carried out by wind or insects. They are vascular with vascular bundles.

 Thallophyta (Algae)Bryophyte
(Mosses,

Liverworts)
Pteridophyta
(Ferns,

Club mosses)
Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
HabitatMostly
aquatic
Moist
damp soil
Terrestrial
/land
Terrestrial
Cellular structure– Unicellular
– multicellular
– Multicellular
– Tissue
– Multicellular
– Tissue
– Organ
– Multicellular
– Organ
– System
Possession of Plant body partNo root, stem, leafRoot-like, stem-like
and leaf-like
structure
True root, stem
and leaves
True root, stem and leaves
Possession of vascular or tissueNoneNonePresentPresent
ReproductionAsexual/or sexual, moisture needed for fertilization e.g. algaeSexual or asexual alternation of generation by gametophyte is dominant, moisture needed.Asexual or sexual spore formation of generation.Asexual and sexual.

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