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SS1: BIOLOGY - 1ST TERM

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  1. Introduction to Biology | Week 1
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Recognizing Living Things | Week 2
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Organisation of Life | Week 3
    3 Topics
  4. Classification of Living Organisms | Week 4
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Kingdom Prokaryotae / Monera & Kingdom Protista | Week 5
    3 Topics
    |
    3 Quizzes
  6. Kingdom Fungi & Kingdom Plantae | Week 6
    9 Topics
    |
    2 Quizzes
  7. Kingdom Animalia I | Week 7
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Kingdom Animalia II | Week 8
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. The Cell | Week 9
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. The Cell Structure and Functions | Week 10
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. The Cell and its Environment | Week 11
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  12. Nutrition in Plants | Week 12
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Mineral Salts:

The soil is the main source of mineral salts while the atmosphere is the source of gaseous elements such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

Mineral salts are required by plants for healthy growth. Some of these minerals are required in large quantities while others are required in small quantities.

(a) Macronutrients: These are nutrients or mineral elements required by plants in large quantities for healthy growth and development. Examples are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, sulphur, phosphorus, iron, etc.

(b) Micronutrients: These are nutrients required by plants in small quantities for their growth and development. They are also known as trace elements e.g. zinc, boron, molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, and iron.

Culture Solution:

A culture solution is a solution containing all the major elements required by plants for their normal growth and development, examples of culture solutions usually prepared in the laboratory are:

Knop’s culture solution and Sach’s culture solution.

These solutions contain all the major elements needed for plant growth and are used for studying the effects of the deficiency of elements on the growth of plants.

Table Showing Mineral Requirements of Plants:

ElementFunctionsDeficiency Symptoms
Nitrogen– Synthesis of amino acids, proteins,
nitrogenous basis and chlorophyll.
– Stems become slender.
– Yellowing of leaves.
Phosphorous– Formation of coenzymes and
nucleo-protein.
– Helps in root development.
– Helps in fruit formation and maturity.
– Poor growth.
– Stem and leaf become
purplish.
– Mottling of lower leaves.
Potassium– Cell formation.
– Regulation of certain cell activities.
– Activates various plant enzymes.
– Very poor growth.
– Leaves turn orange
or brown.
Calcium – Healthy growth of plants.
– Cell wall formation.
– Neutralizing acids.
– Activates enzymes.
– Weak growth.
– Stunted growth.
– Poor root development.
Iron  – Formation of chlorophyll.– Poor growth 
– Yellowing of leaves
Magnesium– Formation of chlorophyll.– Poor growth.
– Yellowing of leaves.
Sulphur– Formation of certain proteins
in the protoplasm.
– Stems become slender.
– Yellowing of leaves.

Note: Minor elements or micronutrients are mainly required for the activity of enzymes.

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