SS1: BIOLOGY - 1ST TERM
Introduction to Biology | Week 16 Topics|1 Quiz
Recognizing Living Things | Week 23 Topics|1 Quiz
Organisation of Life | Week 33 Topics
Classification of Living Organisms | Week 47 Topics|1 Quiz
Kingdom Prokaryotae / Monera & Kingdom Protista | Week 53 Topics|3 Quizzes
Kingdom Fungi & Kingdom Plantae | Week 69 Topics|2 Quizzes
Kingdom Animalia I | Week 76 Topics|1 Quiz
Kingdom Animalia II | Week 85 Topics|1 Quiz
The Cell | Week 93 Topics|1 Quiz
The Cell Structure and Functions | Week 104 Topics|1 Quiz
The Cell and its Environment | Week 114 Topics|1 Quiz
Nutrition in Plants | Week 124 Topics|1 Quiz
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Functions of the Cell
A cell performs major functions essential for the growth and development of an organism. Important functions of the cell are as follows:
Provides Structure and Support:
Cells are the structural basis of all organisms. The cell membrane and cell wall are the main parts of a cell that provide structure and support to the organism. e.g the skin is made up of a large number of cells. Xylem present in vascular plants is made of cells that provide structural support to the plants.
Allows Transport of Substances:
Cells import various nutrients which are used to carry out various processes occurring in the cell. Small molecules such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethanol diffuse across the cell membrane along the concentration gradient. This is known as passive transport. The larger molecules diffuse across the cell membrane through active transport where the cells require a lot of energy to transport the substances.
Facilitate Growth Mitosis:
The cells facilitate growth in an organism. The parent cell divides into daughter cells in a process called mitosis. Body tissues grow by increasing. Until we become adults, cells in many tissues in the body divide and grow quickly. When we are adults many cells mature and become specialised for their particular job in the body. So they don’t make copies of themselves (reproduce) as often.
Energy is required by cells to carry out various tasks and chemical processes. The cells produce this energy through a process called respiration in animals and photosynthesis in plants.
Aids in Reproduction:
A cell aids in reproduction through the processes called mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is termed as asexual reproduction where the parent cell divides to form daughter cells. Meiosis causes the daughter cells to be genetically different from the parent cells.
These functions we just discussed help us understand more why cells are known as the structural and functional unit of life. This is due to the fact that they provide structure to the organisms and perform several functions necessary for carrying out life’s processes.