Factors that Determine Types of Occupation and Employment
The following are factors that determine the choice or type of occupation individuals engaged in;
(a) Availability of Natural Resources:
The natural resources a particular region or area is endowed with determines the type and choice of occupation people in such an area engage in. For instance, people in riverine areas adopt fishing as their main occupation.
(b) Climatic and Weather Conditioner:
Climatic and weather differences also determine the nature and type of occupation that predominates in different regions. Excessive rainfall characterizes some regions while some other areas experience mainly sunshine; based on those conditions thick forests are seen in areas where it rains frequently in which lumbering is a major type of occupation, while in the Sahel and Savanna regions, where there are light rainfall and excessive sunlight, their main occupation is cattle rearing, etc.
(c) Skills and Training:
The level of training and education an individual acquires determines what job he/she can perform. Well-trained and skilled people are found to engage in specialized services like legal, teaching, and services while unskilled workers engage in occupations like lumbering, hunting, gardening, etc.
(d) Aptitude and Special interest:
Commonly, it has been experienced that some people naturally develop a preference for certain occupations while some other jobs are detested for different reasons. The attitude and personal interest of individuals towards a particular occupation determine the rate at which people embrace such professions.
(e) Government Policy:
Some government policies specify some jobs for certain people based on age gender, race, culture, etc.
(f) Customs and Traditions:
The prevailing customs and traditions in certain tribal communities may forbid a certain gender from engaging in a certain profession, while they can be excluded in compliance with what custom demands.
(g) The Risk And Hazard Involved:
High risk, natural and industrial hazards are a common phenomenon in some occupations. People are dissuaded from taking up some of these jobs that are prone to risk and hazards, e.g. Marine engineering, the Navy, Pilot, Astronaut, Fireman, etc.
(h) The Rate Of Salary And Wages:
The rate of remuneration and conditions of service attached to some occupations determines the decision to be taken on the acceptance of such a profession. Many people are not interested in jobs with an unattractive salary structure, while some others receive many applications from people due to fat and attractive salaries, wages, and allowances.
1. Explain the term service occupation
2. List two types of services with examples of each
3. State four factors that determine the choice of occupation
4. Give five examples of each;
(i) Industrial workers
(ii) Commercial workers
(iii) Direct service workers
(WASSCE Nov. 2006)