Systems of Agriculture
The system of agricultural production includes the following:
1. Peasant Farming: Peasant farming also referred to as subsistence farming is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food for the farmers and their families. It is a system of farming whereby a farmer cultivates crops and rears animals in order to produce food for use by himself and his family only.
The features of peasant farming include the following:
- It requires a small area of land
- The yield obtained from such small farming is low
- Implements like cutlass, hoe, axes, etc. are usually used
- It requires small capital to operate
- Food crops are mainly grown like rice maize etc.
2. Plantation Farming: This is a system of farming that involves the use of a large area of land permanently for commercial or economic crops. In this type of farming, only one crop is grown in a large area of land. An important characteristic of plantation agriculture is the use of a large area of land. Examples of crops grown are Cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, rubber, palm tree, etc.
- It requires large capital investment
- Only one crop is cultivated
- Harvest is usually great
- It requires the use of machines like tractors, ploughs, etc.
- It may be owned by the government, private individuals, or corporate bodies
- Output is mainly for sale
3. Mechanized Farming: Mechanized farming is also referred to as commercial agriculture, is the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food animals and cash crops in large quantities. The human labour is replaced with that of machines such as tractors, ploughs, harvesters and other engine driven devices.
Characteristics of Mechanized Farming include the following:
- It requires a large area of land
- It requires huge capital investment
- Pests and diseases are usually controlled
- Complex and modern equipment like tractors, sprayers, ploughs, etc. are used
- It is usually practiced by very rich farmers, companies, and government
- Production is mainly for sale
4. Co-operative Farming: This type of farming is when farmers pool resources together in order to enjoy some incentives such as loans and aids from the government. Incentives include loans, fertilizers, subsidies, and easy disposal of their products through organized marketing.
Some characteristics of co-operative farming include:
- It is a union of farmers
- It has an organized market for its products
- They enjoy certain incentives from the government e.g. land, reduced cost of input