Lesson 3, Topic 2
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# Determinants of Population

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## Birth Rate:

This is the total number of birth per thousand people at a period of time in a year. It is also called the fertility period. A rise in population is a result of an increase in the birth rate while a fall in the birth rate will lead to a decrease in population.

The birth rate is the rate at which new babies are born in a country.

Birth Rate
= $$\frac{Number \: of \: Births}{Total \: population \: / \: Population \: size} \: \times \: \frac{1000}{1}$$Â

For example, in 2009 the United States had a population of about 307 million and roughly 4,136,000 births.

Birth Rate
= $$\frac{Number \: of \: Births}{Total \: population \: / \: Population \: size} \: \times \: \frac{1000}{1} \\ = \frac{4,136,000}{307,000,000} \: \times \: \frac{1000}{1} \\ = \scriptsize 0.0135 \: \times \: \normalsize \frac{1000}{1} \\ = \scriptsize 13.5 \: births$$Â

This gives a crude birth rate of 13.5 births per 1,000 population

### Factors Affecting/Influencing Birth Rate:

1. Age Rate: The age bracket at a period of time influences the birth rate. If there is an increase in the adults in a population there will be an increase in the birth rate and vice versa.
2. Policy of the Government: When the government puts in place a preventive measure to control the birth rate it will affect the population e.g Family planning.
3. Legalisation of abortion in a country will reduce the birth rate.
4. The sex composition in a country will either increase or decrease the birth rate.
5. Availability of medical facilities will increase the birth rate while absence will decrease it.
6. Early marriage increases the rate of fertility while late marriage is otherwise.
7. Religion and political stability affect the rate of fertility.

## Death Rate:

This is the total number of deaths per thousand people at a period of time in a year. It is also referred to as the Mortality rate. This is the rate at which death occurs in a country.

An increase in the death rate will lead to a decrease in the total population of people for a period of time and vice versa.

Death Rate
= $$\frac{Number \: of \: Deaths}{Total \: population \: / \: Population \: size} \: \times \: \frac{1000}{1}$$Â

### Factors Influencing/Affecting Death Rate:

1. Availability of medical facilities for people reduces the death rate and vice versa.
2. Infant mortality affects the population negatively.
3. Proper hygiene and environmental sanitation reduce the rate of death.
4. Increase in per capita income as a result of a high standard of living reduces the death rate.
5. Political instability, war, natural disasters, and violence increase the rate of death.
6. High rate of an ageing population will lead to an increase in the death rate.Â

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