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The theory of demographic transition theory is the latest attempt made to provide a historical analysis of the population problems of developing countries. It tends to explain the reasons why all developed countries several years ago went through three identical stages of population.

The demographic theory puts up a model which recognizes three main stages in the process of population growth. The three stages are:

Stage I: the Pre-Industrialization Stage

The main feature of this stage is the high birth rate, high death rate, and low population. The population at this stage is either static or increasing or decreasing at a very low rate. The population transition remains fairly stable

Stage II: Transition Stage

This stage is characterized by a high birth rate accompanied by a low death rate. This stage remains relatively stable but the death rate falls rapidly. This stage leads to a high population as a result of a number of factors such as industrialization, urbanization, better diet, higher income, improved medical services, etc. This stage marks the beginning of demographic transition. Many developing countries are currently at this stage of population growth.

Stage III: Post Transitional Stage

This stage characterized by a low birth rate as a low death rate is under control. In other words, there is a relatively stable population with an older or larger population. It is a feature of an advanced economy (the stage that is associated with developed countries).

Evaluation Questions

  1. Explain the factors responsible for declining population
  2. Discuss the characteristics of Malthus theory


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