With this type of population the population growth exceeds the existing resource base. It is also known as the population that exceeds the available resources of the country. Since the population is more than resources there will be a fall or decrease in the standard of living of people as a result of a decrease in output per head.
Consequences of Over Population
1. Congestion: One of the consequences of overpopulation is that it leads to congestion. This congestion will occur in the areas of traffic, housing, land, and schools.
2. It leads to famine: Acute shortage of food may be another consequence of overpopulation. As a result of famine, too many people will end up struggling for the limited available quantity of food produced in the country.
3. It causes unemployment: There will be too many applicants that will be competing for the few available employment opportunities. The aftermath of this will be many unemployed people in the country
4. High rate of crime: It is the belief of sociologists that the crime rate in a country rises at the same rate as the population. Overpopulation will therefore bring about an increase in crimes such as armed robbery, rape, murder, drug pushing, etc.
5. It leads to a high rate of illiteracy: The rate of illiteracy will increase because not everyone that is willing to get an education will be able to. They either won’t be able to afford to get an education or may not be given the opportunity due to the competition that will exist as a result of too many people in the country
6. Increase in government expenditure: The amount of money the government of a country spends depends largely on the number of people in that country. Therefore the more people in a country, the more the government of that country will spend on catering for them.
7. Fall in the standard of living: Overpopulation causes a decrease or fall in the standard of living of the people of the country.
Advantages of overpopulation
1. Overpopulation brings about high workforce in the country
2. As the population increases the demand for goods and services will increase.
3. In an overpopulated economy if inflation is checked and monitored or managed properly it leads to employment opportunities
4. Overpopulation leads to foreign investment opportunities in the country
5. Overpopulated economy have the human capacity to defend the country in the area of security.
Demerit of Overpopulation
1. It leads to a decrease in low per capita income, the standard of the people is low
2. Decrease the satisfaction of the people as a result of higher population than available resources
3. Leads to congestion
4. Increase in crime rate and insecurity in the country.
5. It can lead to increase in the level of unemployment
Control of Over Population
1. Family planning: This involves every family controlling the number of children they give birth to. This will help to check or control both rapid growth and over-population.
2. Discourage early marriage: Early marriage which promotes a high birth rate should be discouraged.
3. Encourage monogamy: Monogamy, which is based on one man, one wife, should be encouraged, while polygamy (marrying of many wives), which can lead to many births should be discouraged.
4. Legalization of abortion: Abortion should be legalized to enable women to terminate unwanted pregnancies.
5. Stiffening of immigration laws: This will make it difficult for people to migrate to areas that are already overpopulated.