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This is a population that is below the optimum population. The size of this population is so small when combined with the available resources of a country. It is also known as that population that is less than the available resources of a country. Per capita income is insufficient to the available resources at a particular period.

Causes of under population

When there is continuous increase in the level of mortality or death in the country. 

Increase in the number of people leaving a particular country to another country (emigration).

Decrease in the rate of fertility or birth rate in the country.

Consequences of under population

1. The size of the population will affect the level of the demand for goods and services

2. There will be a low level of productivity in the country

3. The resources of the country will not be fully exploited or fully utilized.

4. There will be a decline or fall in investment and saving.

5. Low level of standard of living and per capital income due to the inability of enough human workforce.

Control of Under-Population

1. Provision of Medical facilities and improvement

2. The government should relax immigration laws making it easy for people to enter the country

3. Encourage polygamy

4. Avoiding wars

5. Discourage emigration by providing necessary needs and basic amenities for the people

Evaluation Questions

1. Differentiate between optimum population and under population

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2. How can we control over population

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Question 1

Differentiate between optimum population and under population


Optimum population is the best type of population where the number of people equals the country’s resources. It is at the point where per capita output is at the highest while under population occurs where there are too few people in a country in relation to the resources available.

Question 2

How can we control over population?


  1. Family planning should be introduced
  2. Early marriage should be discouraged
  3. Monogamy should be encouraged and polygamy should be discouraged
  4. Abortion should be legalized
  5. Immigration laws should be stiffened