Definition of Mining
Mining is the extraction of minerals from the ground. Minerals are valuable resources that are found buried in underground layers of the earth and the process of bringing them out is called mining. Nigeria is richly blessed with a variety of minerals.
Types of Minerals
The major types of minerals resources can be classified under the following categories
- Mineral fuels
- Iron and non-ferrous metals
- Ferroalloy metals
- Other metallic minerals
- Some unusual metals
Minerals present and mined in Nigeria include
- Petroleum as crude oil and Gas: They are found in Port-Harcourt (River State) Warri and Ugheli.
- Coal: It is found in Enugu and Benue State.
- Iron ore: It is found in the Itakpe (Kogi-State) and Aladja (Delta State), cross river
- Tin and Columbite: Found in Jos (Plateau State), Osun,
- Limestones: Found in Ewekoro in Shagamu (Ogun –State), Ukpila (Edo State) Calabar, Nkalagu, Enugu.
- Lead and Zinc: Found in Abakaliki (Ebonyi State), Bauchi, Abia, Enugu
- Clay: Bornu state, Kaduna, Ondo
- Copper: Kano State
- Marble: Katsina State, Kwara, Kogi, River state
Methods of Mining
- Opencast mining method
- Shaft and underground method