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SS1: GOVERNMENT - 2ND TERM

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  1. Types of Government Continues, Federal and Confederal Systems of Government | Week 1
    6 Topics
    |
    2 Quizzes
  2. Forms of Government: Presidential System of Government | Week 2
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Forms of Government: Parliamentary System of Government | Week 3
    6 Topics
    |
    2 Quizzes
  4. Structure and Organization of Government: Legislature | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Structure and Organization of Government: Executive Content | Week 5
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Structure and Organization of Government: Judiciary Content | Week 6
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Basic Principles of Government: Political Participation and Political Apathy | Week 7
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Basic Principles of Government: Rule of Law and Delegated Legislation | Week 8
    8 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. Basic Principles of Government: Centralization and Decentralization | Week 9
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Passage of Bills in Presidential System:

Bill, a draft or an item of proposed legislation, or law, undergoes the following process before it becomes law:

(i) Notice of the bills is presented to the clerk of the house.

(ii) First reading: The bill at this stage is formally presented and introduced.

(iii) Second Reading: The bill is read for the second time. The members could deliberate to determine the general principles of the proposed bill.

(iv) Committee stage: The bill is sent to the appropriate committee for a thorough examination.

(v) Report stage: It can also be considered a second reading. Various amendments are made at this stage.

(vi) Third Reading: At this stage, no new amendments may be entertained.

(vii) Presidential Assent: This is the final stage. The president signs the bill into law.

Passage of Bills in Parliamentary System:

In the parliamentary system of government, bills are usually first introduced in the lower chamber of the bicameral legislature. Acts of parliament begin as a bill, which the legislature votes on.

The stages of passing bills into law are as follows:

(i) First Reading: At this stage, the title is announced without declaration. After that, it is printed and circulated to members for close study.

(ii) Second Reading: The bill will be read again, there will be a debate on the general principles of the proposed bill in the house after which it is sent to the appropriate committee for further study.

(iii) Committee stage: At this stage, the bill will be sent to the appropriate committee which will examine the bill in detail.

(iv) Report Stage: The committee will report back to the parliament, who will determine and finalize the various amendment.

(v) Third Reading: Further study of the bill is done at this stage by the entire House with all ambiguous clauses cleared.

(vi) Senate/House of Representatives Debate: The bill is sent to the other House to pass through the same process.

(vii) Assent: The bill is signed to law by the Head of State and becomes an act of parliament

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