Passage of Bills in Presidential and Parliamentary System of Government
Passage of Bills in Presidential System:
Bill, a draft or an item of proposed legislation, or law, undergoes the following process before it becomes law:
(i) Notice of the bills is presented to the clerk of the house.
(ii) First reading: The bill at this stage is formally presented and introduced.
(iii) Second Reading: The bill is read for the second time. The members could deliberate to determine the general principles of the proposed bill.
(iv) Committee stage: The bill is sent to the appropriate committee for a thorough examination.
(v) Report stage: It can also be considered a second reading. Various amendments are made at this stage.
(vi) Third Reading: At this stage, no new amendments may be entertained.
(vii) Presidential Assent: This is the final stage. The president signs the bill into law.
Passage of Bills in Parliamentary System:
In the parliamentary system of government, bills are usually first introduced in the lower chamber of the bicameral legislature. Acts of parliament begin as a bill, which the legislature votes on.
The stages of passing bills into law are as follows:
(i) First Reading: At this stage, the title is announced without declaration. After that, it is printed and circulated to members for close study.
(ii) Second Reading: The bill will be read again, there will be a debate on the general principles of the proposed bill in the house after which it is sent to the appropriate committee for further study.
(iii) Committee stage: At this stage, the bill will be sent to the appropriate committee which will examine the bill in detail.
(iv) Report Stage: The committee will report back to the parliament, who will determine and finalize the various amendment.
(v) Third Reading: Further study of the bill is done at this stage by the entire House with all ambiguous clauses cleared.
(vi) Senate/House of Representatives Debate: The bill is sent to the other House to pass through the same process.
(vii) Assent: The bill is signed to law by the Head of State and becomes an act of parliament