Meaning, List and Categories of Fundamental Human Rights and Need to Include Them in the Constitution
Fundamental human rights are inalienable, basic, or natural privileges enjoyed by the citizens of a given state which are usually stated in the constitution of the country.
United Nations in 1948 declared some natural rights which countries must endeavour to provide for their citizens. This international organization has called on all member-states and governments of the world to include these rights in their constitution e.g. right to life, freedom from inhuman treatment, freedom of expression, etc.
Protection of fundamental human rights of citizens will add value to their life, improve their welfare and help them live a more meaningful and fulfilling life.
List of Fundamental Human Rights:
(i) Right to life: This right to life is inalienable and natural. It is to be enjoyed by all citizens.
(ii) Right to Dignity Of Human Person: Every human being must be accorded his respect as a person, and granted dignity befitting to a human being without torturing or molestation.
(iii) Right to Private and Family Life: Human beings are entitled to enjoy private family life outside public view.
(iv) Right to Freedom of Movement: Citizens can travel or move about to any part of the state without restriction.
(v) Right to Fair Hearing: There should be no form of discrimination irrespective of class, position, sex, wealth, etc. All must be treated equally and justly.
(vi) Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion: Citizens must enjoy their right to choose the religion of his/her choice and enjoy his/her freedom of thought and conscience.
(vii) Right to freedom of expression and the press: Citizens are to enjoy the right to air their views and express their opinions without restriction, once they do not slander others.
(viii) Rights to peaceful Assembly and Association: Citizens are to choose their associations relationships and political affiliations without imposition.
(ix) Right to Freedom From Discrimination: Citizens shall not be subjected to any form of discrimination irrespective of sex, wealth, social standing, education, etc.
(x) Right To Vote And Be Voted For: Citizens can vie for any political office or vote for any candidate of their choice without restriction.
(xi) Right to own Property: Every human has the right to aspire to and acquire property.
(xii) Right to Gainful Employment: Human beings in a state shall enjoy the right to work. It is only when they work they can take care of their own welfare and useful living.
(xiii) Right to Education: Human beings have the right to basic education for human existence and survival.
(xiv) Right against Confiscation: or acquisition of property without adequate compensation.
(xv) Right to freedom of Slavery, Servitude and forced labour.
Need to Include Fundamental Human Rights in the Constitution:
The fundamental human rights of people need to be stipulated in the constitution for the following reasons:
(i) To enable easy reference to the existence of such rights by the people.
(ii) To uphold the principle of rule of law and prevent dictatorship by limiting the power of rulers.
(iii) Inclusion of fundamental human rights in the constitution guarantees constitutional protection.
(iv) To comply with United Nations’ directive on human rights.