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  • Ways of Producing Charges
    • By Friction
    • By Contact
    • By Induction

Charges are produced in three ways namely:

1. By Friction:

This is when two uncharged bodies are rubbed against each other which allows electrons to move from one surface to another. Let us consider the following examples:

i. Ebonite rod + fur = Negative charge:

When an ebonite rod is rubbed with fur, negative charges are produced. This is because the friction between the fur and the rod makes the ebonite rod gain electrons from the fur due to the fact that electrons in fur are less tightly bound than the electrons in the ebonite rod. The fur now has a deficiency of electrons and so is positively-charged.

Ebonite rod + fur = Negative charge

ii. Glass Rod + Silk = Positive Charge:

A glass rod had free electrons on its surface that are loosely bound. When the rod is rubbed with a piece of silk, it loses the electrons. Now the rod has fewer electrons, hence is positively charged, whereas the piece of silk has gained electrons and is is negatively charged.

glass rod
If a glass rod is rubbed with silk = Positive charge

2. By Contact:

This occurs when a charged body is in contact with an uncharged body. Charges are transferred to the uncharged body as a result of contact between the two bodies.

Charging by contact
Fig. 3.2.1: Charging by contact: (a) Electrons are transferred by rubbing the negatively charged rod on the metal sphere. (b) When the rod is removed, the electrons distribute themselves over the surface of the sphere.


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