Lesson 1, Topic 5
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# Electric Circuit

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A circuit is defined as the path followed by current along a conductor. A circuit is a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow.

An electric circuit includes a device that gives energy to charged particles constituting the current, such as a battery or a generator and devices that use current, such as lamps, electric motors and the connecting wires.

### Types of Circuit:

There are 5 Main Types of Electric circuits â€“ Series Circuit, Parallel Circuit, Short Circuit, Open Circuit, and Closed Circuit.

### 1. Series Circuit:

A series circuit is one that has more than one resistor, but only one path through which electricity flows.

A resistor (bulb) in a circuit is anything that uses some of the power from the cell. When there is a break in any of the resistors, the entire circuit will not function.

### 2. Parallel Circuit:

In a parallel circuit, there is more than one resistor (bulb) and they are arranged on many paths, which shows that current can flow from one end to the other through many branches e.g.

Path 1 â€“ ABCF

Path 2 â€“ FCDE

When there is a break in circuit, the other lamp is not affected, likewise the light does not dim because the same voltage flows through the circuit.

### 3. Short Circuit:

In a short circuit, there is no load along the conducting path. By-passing the load and other components cause the same voltage from the cell to flow to the other end of the cell, the high voltage causes wires to heat up and can cause a fire.

A short circuit can cause heating, melting of wires, harmful smoke and smell, and blinding light (during welding)

### 4. Open Circuit:

This occurs when there is a gap along the conducting path e.g. when the key is open.

### 5. Closed Circuit:

This occurs when there is no gap along the conducting path.

Evaluation Questions:

1. Define
(i) Current
(ii) Resistance
(iii) Potential difference

2. What is a circuit?

3. List and explain types of circuit you know.

4. Draw 5 symbols used in electric circuits.

5. A current of 100MA passes through a conductor for 5minutes. Find the quantity of electricity produced.

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