Back to Course

SS2: CHEMISTRY - 2ND TERM

0% Complete
0/0 Steps
  1. Water & Solution I | Week 1
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Water, Solution and Solubility | Week 2 & 3
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Air | Week 4
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Pollution | Week 5
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Rate of Chemical Reaction | Week 6 & 7
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Energy and Energy Effect I | Week 8 & 9
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Energy and Energy Effect II | Week 10 & 11
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Chemical Equilibrium | Week 12
    8 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



Lesson Progress
0% Complete

Topic Content:

  • Removal of Permanent Hardness

Permanent hardness is caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions in the form of soluble tetraoxosulphate(VI) and chlorides.

Removal of Permanent Hardness:

1. Addition of Washing Soda:

Washing soda removes the calcium and magnesium ions from the water as insoluble calcium and magnesium trioxocarbonate(IV) respectively.

Na2CO3(aq) + CaSO4(aq) →  CaCO3(s) + Na2SO4(aq)

 

You are viewing an excerpt of this Topic. Subscribe Now to get Full Access to ALL this Subject's Topics and Quizzes for this Term!

Click on the button "Subscribe Now" below for Full Access!

Subscribe Now

Note: If you have Already Subscribed and you are seeing this message, it means you are logged out. Please Log In using the Login Button Below to Carry on Studying!

Responses

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Powered By MemberPress WooCommerce Plus Integration