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SS2: ENGLISH - 1ST TERM

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  1. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 1
    4 Topics
    |
    2 Quizzes
  2. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 2
    4 Topics
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    2 Quizzes
  3. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 3
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    1 Quiz
  4. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 4
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  5. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 5
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    2 Quizzes
  6. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 6
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  7. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 7
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  8. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 8
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    1 Quiz
  9. SS2: English Language First Term – Week 9
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Lesson 1, Topic 3
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Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Human Internal Body System and Functions I

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There are many organs that are responsible for our staying healthy as human beings. These organs work harmoniously to keep the human body healthy. Some of these organs are external and some are internal. Usually, we can see the external organs, but we also need to be acquainted with some of the organs in the human internal body system. These organs include the kidneys, the heart, the lungs, the spleen, the stomach, the intestines etc. All these internal organs are held together by the human skeleton. In other words, the skeleton serves as the bony framework of the human body. It provides support and protection for the soft tissues and the various internal organs. It also gives shape to the human body.

The Kidneys:

There are normally two kidneys in the human internal body system. They are located on both sides of the backbone under the cage. The kidney is bean-shaped and reddish brown. The right kidney is slightly lower in the body than the left. The two kidneys are well protected against injury by a large amount of fat, the lower ribs and many muscles.

Even though there are normally two kidneys in the human body, it is possible to live with one. The kidney is so important that without it, the body dies. In addition, when it is not functioning well, the body also dies.

What do the kidneys do? Healthy kidneys act like a filter to ensure that the right amount of waste and fluids are removed from the blood and so retain the essential elements needed by the body. To remove the wastes and extra water, blood enters through the renal artery. Blood is cleaned in the kidney as it passes through tiny filters which are referred to as nephrons.

Kidneys keep the balance of salt and acids in the body. They produce hormones and enzymes which perform very important functions. The hormones and enzymes help to control blood pressure, keep the internal water balance, make red blood cells and maintain the blood composition and maintain strong healthy bones.

Malfunctioning of the Kidneys:

The kidneys can malfunction through diseases and drugs taken by humans. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. Some kidney diseases are:

Diuresis – This can lead to excreting a large amount of urine, loss of weight, and emaciation.

Kidney Stones – These stones may reduce the flow of urine as they obstruct the passage of urine. The condition may lead to pain being experienced while passing out urine, severe abdominal pain, high blood pressure, blood in urine, fever, etc.

Dropsy or Oedema – This may make faces and ankles swell. It may lead to constant weakness and tiredness, abdominal pains etc. Kidney diseases, if not treated early enough, can lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure may require dialysis (the use of a kidney machine to remove urea from the body) or a kidney transplant. This involves replacing the diseased kidney with a healthy one.

Source: New Oxford Secondary English Course for SS2 by Ayo Banjo et al

Class Activity:

Use your dictionary to look up the meanings of the words and expressions that have been emphasized.

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