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  1. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 1
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    2 Quizzes
  2. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 2
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  3. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 3
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  4. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 4
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  5. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 5
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  6. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 6
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  7. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 7
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  8. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 8
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  9. SS2: English Language 3rd Term – Week 9
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An Adjunct is an optional or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence. Since adjuncts function as adverbs or adverbials, we will discuss them as adverbials.

Adverbials could be single words, phrases, or clauses.

A.   Single – Word Adverbs

Study the following sentences

1.    Ade lifted the bag slowly.

2.    Ngozi goes to school daily.

3.    Some students live here.

4.    The typist looked down.

5.    The weather is cloudy today.

You already know that the words in bold in the sentences above are all adverbs. The adverbs can also be classified into their types, namely:

1.    slowly           –        adverb of manner

2.    daily              –        adverb of frequency

3.    here               –        adverb of place

4.    down             –        adverb of direction

5.    today             –        adverb of time

B.    Adverbial Phrases

Study the following sentences, taking particular note of the expression in bold.

1.    The substitute players sat on the bench.

2.    Aisha’s mother has travelled to Lagos.

3.    The Muslims go to the mosque on Fridays.

4.    The players took photographs after the match.

5.    The car pulled to a stop with a lot of noise

The words in bold in each sentence are adverbial phrases. They illustrate five types of adverbial phrases, namely: 

1.    on the bench           –        adverbial of place

2.    to Lagos                  –        adverbial of direction

3.    on Fridays              –        adverbial of frequency

4.    after the match       –        adverbial of time

5.    with a lot of noise   –        adverbial of manner

C.    Functions of Adverbials

Adverbials – whether single words phrases or larger expressions – commonly function to modify verbs. Let us now look at the examples we have used in A and B above and determine how they function.


1.  slowly modifies the verb lifted 

2.  daily modifies the verb goes

3.  here modifies the verb lives

4.  down modifies the verb looked

5.  today modifies the verb is


1.  on the bench modifies the verb sat

2.  to Lagos modifies the verb has travelled.

3.  on Fridays modifies the verb go

4.  after the match modifies the verb took

5.  with a lot of noise modifies the verb pulled


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