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SS2: GOVERNMENT - 1ST TERM

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  1. Electoral Process | Week 1
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Types of Electoral Process | Week 2
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Electoral Process Continues - Proportional, Representation, Repeated Ballot, Direct and Indirect Elections | Week 3
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Ballot Systems | Types of Voting | Week 4
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Organization of Election | Week 5
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Electoral Commission and Electoral Officers | Week 6
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Public Opinion and Mass Media | Week 7
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Civil Service | Week 8
    6 Topics
  9. Personnel Administration in the Civil Service | Week 9
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. Public Corporation | Week 10
    9 Topics
  11. Commercialization, Privatization and Deregulation of Public Corporations | Week 11
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



Lesson 8, Topic 6
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Theory Questions – Civil Service

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Topic Content:

  • Theory Questions & Answers – Civil Service

Evaluation Questions – Civil Service:

1. (a) Define Civil Service.

(b) What are the Characteristics of Civil Service?

2. Discuss the functions of Civil Service.

3. Discuss the different classes in the Civil Service and their powers.

4.(a) What is Corruption?

(b) Discuss five forms of Corruption in the Civil Service.

5. How can the problems in the civil service be prevented?

6. (a) What is Public Service?

(b) What are the functions of Public Service?

7. Differentiate between Civil Service and Public Service.

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Evaluation Questions – Civil Service

1 (a) Define Civil Service.

Answer:

Civil Service is the administrative arm of the executive organ of the government responsible for formulating and implementing government policies, programmes, and projects. It is structured into ministries and departments with specific powers and functions to determine, plan and execute government policies, programmes, and projects.

 

(b) What are the Characteristics of Civil Service?

Answer:

  • Political Neutrality: Civil servants are politically neutral. They cannot take part in partisan politics. Any civil servant who wants to join politics and contest elections will have to resign his appointment.
  • Permanence: Civil service is a permanent political institution. The structure cannot be changed easily. Civil servants enjoy Job security.
  • Anonymity: The Civil servants are to be seen and not heard. They are not to speak to the public on official issues without the authorization of the appropriate authority.
  • Impartiality: The civil servants are to discharge their duty without fear or favour. They should serve any government in power, their political leaning or interest notwithstanding.
  • Expertise: Civil servants should be experts in the performing of their duties. Expertise in civil service will reduce waste and improve the quality of service.
  • Mediocrity: Employment, and promotion in the civil service are based on merit. This enhances productivity and efficiency.
  • Protocol/Bureaucracy: The civil servants in discharging their duties must adhere to strict, laid down rules and procedures. Violation of such rules amounts to misconduct and so can attract different sanctions depending on the nature of the offence.

 

2. Discuss the functions of civil service.

Answer:

  • Civil service is the instrument of government that formulates government policies, programmes, and projects and implements them.
  • It provides continuity between different government administrations. Government changes but civil service remains, this ensures continuity.
  • They advise the government, especially top-ranking Civil servants e.g. Permanent Secretary, Head of Service, etc. advice the government.
  • They prepare an annual budget. The various ministries and departments prepare their budget which is put together by the government.
  • Civil Service performs quasi-legislative functions through delegated legislation e.g. statutory instruments.
  • It drafts bills that the legislature can deliberate on.

 

3. Discuss the different classes in the Civil Service and their powers.

Answer:

  • Administrative Class: They advise the minister on policy matters. They formulate policies and prepare the ministries or department’s budgets, they provide leadership to the ministry, plan activities and programmes of the government and coordinate activities of the civil servants.
  • Professional Class: They offer professional/Technical advice to the management on technical matters. It is the highest-ranked specialist class in the civil service. They are employed based on their professional knowledge and technical skills.
  • Executive Class: They are responsible for the implementation of government policies. It includes the Senior Executive Officers.
  • Clerical Class: They carry out clerical duties in the ministry which include keeping official records in a prescribed pattern such as Filing letters and keeping records.
  • Auxiliary or Manipulative Class: Auxiliary class includes: Cleaners, Drivers, Labourers, Security Officers, etc. They perform diverse menial jobs e.g. cleaning etc.

 

4 (a) What is Corruption?

Answer: Corruption is a serious problem in Nigeria. In Civil Service, corruption can be curbed through internal and external measures. 

 

(b) Discuss forms of Corruption in the Civil Service.

Answer: Bribery and Corruption have infected the Civil Service heavily. It takes different forms and levels. There is corruption in recruitment when merit is sacrificed on the altar of favouritism. Failure to discharge one’s duties without inducement, collection of a 10% cut in the award of contracts, etc.

 

5. How can the problems in the civil service be prevented?

Answer:

(i) Regular Payment of Salaries, Wages, and Benefits of Civil Servants will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Civil Service. The Salaries and Wages must be improved.

(ii) The officers must be regularly trained including training on the endemic of corruption.

(iii) There shall be an improvement in the working environment and welfare of Civil Servants.

(iv) Anti-Corruption Units should be set up in every Ministry and Departments e.g. Servicom, Anti-Corruption Unit, etc. These units shall discharge their duties without fear or favour.

(v) The Senior Management should offer focused leadership in the service. They should effectively monitor and supervise their subordinates in the implementation of policies and Programmes.

 

6. (a) What is Public Service?

Answer:

Public Service is the service of the federation in any capacity in respect of the government of the federation. It is the machinery of the government through which it articulates government policies, and programmes and delivers services to the people in the state.

 

(b) What are the functions of Public Service?

Answer:

  • It articulates and implements government policies, programmes, and projects and implements them.
  • It daily administers the government and sees to the determination and realization of state goals.
  • It provides various services to the citizens to meet the needs of the citizens which include: immigration, services customs and exercise services, regulation of birth and deaths and marriages, etc.
  • It regulates and controls the economy for fast economic development.
  • It creates employment
  • It generates revenue for the state.
  • It provides social amenities for the people.

 

7. Differentiate between Civil Service and Public Service.

Answer:

 

Civil Service

Public Service

i.

The administrative head of civil Science is the Permanent Secretary.

A Director-General is the administrative head of the Public service.

ii.

Civil Service is bureaucratic.

Public Service can take immediate action.

iii.

It is not set up for profit-making but for the provision of services.

It is set up to provide services and make a profit.

iv.

Recruitment into civil service is done by the Civil Service Commission.

Recruitment is done by the Board of Directors of each unit.

v.

Civil Servants pay their revenue into consolidated accounts.

Public service pays their revenue into the Federation account.

vi.

Civil Service includes Civil Servants in the Ministries, Departments, and Agencies.

Public Service is more encompassing. It includes all people who render services to the government in different capacities.