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SS2: GOVERNMENT - 1ST TERM

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  1. Electoral Process | Week 1
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Types of Electoral Process | Week 2
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Electoral Process Continues - Proportional, Representation, Repeated Ballot, Direct and Indirect Elections | Week 3
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Ballot Systems | Types of Voting | Week 4
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Organization of Election | Week 5
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Electoral Commission and Electoral Officers | Week 6
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Public Opinion and Mass Media | Week 7
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Civil Service | Week 8
    6 Topics
  9. Personnel Administration in the Civil Service | Week 9
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. Public Corporation | Week 10
    9 Topics
  11. Commercialization, Privatization and Deregulation of Public Corporations | Week 11
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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It is a system of allocating seats in the legislature to political parties in proportion to popular votes cast in favour of the political parties in an election. Electoral seats are allotted to contending political parties in proportion to the total number of votes the party received.

Seats are shared strictly according to the electoral strength of the Political Parties.

There are two main types of proportional representation:

1. List Proportional Representation:

This type is usually used in multi-member constituencies where voters rank their vote in their order of preference for the parties which have registered a list of candidates. At the end of the election, political parties are allotted seats in proportion to their overall share of the total votes and the winning candidates are taken from their ranking on the list.

There are two types of list Proportional representation:

The Free List: Voters have the choice of ranking the candidates.

The Bound List:  Voters are limited to the choice of the party list.

2. The Single Transferrable Vote:

This type can also be used in a multi-member constituency where the voters can rank candidates in order of preference on the ballot paper. In calculating the winners, after the total number of first preferences, votes are added up and the counting begins by establishing the percentage quota of votes required for one seat. It is calculated by the number of votes cast divided by the number of seats to be filled. If it is worked out, any candidate that gets that number of votes is assured of securing a seat. Using either of these two formulae:

Hare’s Quota: \( \frac{Total\:Votes}{Total\:Seats}\)

Droop’s Quota = \( \left (\frac{Total \: Votes}{Total\:Seats \: + \: 1} \right)\scriptsize \: + \: 1 \)

Merits of Proportional Representation:

(i) Political Parties are represented in the legislature according to their electoral strength.

(ii) This system encourages political participation as sections are represented in the legislature.

(iii) All shades of interest and groups are represented in the legislature.

(iv) It prevents overrepresentation of the majority groups and non-representation or under-representation of the minority groups.

(v) Representation of different groups in the legislature gives the minority parties and different people a greater sense of belonging and commitment to the political activities in the state.

(vi) It discourages gerrymandering as more than one candidate is elected from a constituency. Constituencies will not be drawn in such a manner to give a party/candidate an undue advantage.

(vii) In this system, every vote counts. No vote is wasted as excess votes of the winner are allotted to other party candidates.

Demerits of Proportional Representation:

(i) It involves a lot of calculations. This makes it cumbersome, complex, and difficult.

(ii) It is difficult to use in an illiterate society.

(iii) It encourages the growth of many political parties, even parties that have very small supporters/voters. This promotes minor differences in society.

(iv) It can lead to the formulation of a coalition/national government because a single political party may not have majority seats in the legislature. This breeds a weak government.

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