Types of British Territories
(i) Crown Colony System
A Crown Colony System was a territory acquired by the British through settlement, cession, conquest, or purchase. In crown colonies, the British used direct rule. It established political institutions such as a legislative council, executive council, and Governor to rule the people. The people of the territory were regarded as British Subjects. The crown colony system was headed by a Governor e.g Calabar Crown Colony, Lagos Crown Colony.
The Crown Colony System was unpopular due to:
(i) The Governor was a dictator, he exercised veto powers and power of certification.
(ii) The executive council and legislative councils were advisory bodies to the Governors. The Governors were not bound to take their advice.
(iii) The executive council and legislative councils until the early 1940s and 1920s respectively were dominated by Europeans.
(iv) Educated elites were excluded from the administration of the Crown Colony.
(v) Africans in the legislative councils were nominated not elected.
(vi) Traditional rulers were used as unofficial members in the legislative councils.
(ii) Protectorate System
British Protectorate was an area British offered their protection to through treaties. In these territories, the British government exercised limited control. These territories had their traditional rulers who the British government signed treaties with recognizing their status. There were two protectorates: Protectorate of Northern Nigeria and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria each was headed by a High Commissioner who was appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
In the Protectorate, traditional rulers ruled their people while the European officials supervised. They ruled the people through the native authority system. Each Protectorate was divided into Provinces with a Resident officer as the head; Each Province was further divided into districts headed by District Officers. District Officers exercised executive and judicial powers over their districts.