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SS2: PHYSICS - 2ND TERM

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Lesson 8, Topic 1
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Gas Laws

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Topic Content:

• Meaning of Gas Laws
• Measurement of Gas Pressure
• The Manometer
• The Barometer

Gas laws describe the relationships between a gas’s pressure (P), volume (V) and temperature (T). The Gas Laws show and explain the behaviour of each gas property when there is a change in any other properties. These laws are used to solve gas-related questions.

The Manometer:

A manometer is an instrument that is used to measure gas pressure. The key feature of a manometer is a U-shaped tube containing mercury (or occasionally another nonvolatile liquid e.g water)

How to Use a Manometer:

One end of the U-tube is connected to a gas supply, while the other end is open to the atmosphere. The free arm of the manometer is raised or lowered until the mercury levels in both arms of the tube are at the same level. The gas supply is then opened to allow gas into the manometer.

If a gas is released into the bulb on the right, it will exert pressure on the mercury in the right column, and the two columns of mercury will no longer be the same height. The difference between the heights of the two columns is equal to the pressure of the gas.

Below are the different scenarios for calculating gas pressure using a manometer.

When mercury level A is below C (level above B):

Pressure at A = Pressure at B

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