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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Content:

  • Theory Questions & Answers
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Evaluation Questions – Animal Health Management I:

1. (a) Define the term “disease.”

(b) State the difference between resistance and susceptibility to diseases.

(c) List three factors which determine the degree of resistance of an animal to disease.

2. (a) Define each of the following terms as used in animal health:

 

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Evaluation – Animal Health I

1. (a) Define the term “disease.”

Answer: Disease can be defined as the absence of normal health due to infection (presence of pathogens in the body), nutritional deficiency and imbalance, hereditary and functional disorders as well as injuries.

 

(b) State the difference between resistance and susceptibility to diseases.

Answer: The difference between resistance and susceptibility to diseases is that an animal is said to be resistant to disease when it is not affected by an invading pathogenic disease-causing organism or pathogen while the animal is said to be susceptible to disease when it is not able to ward off the effect of the invading pathogenic organism, in which case it manifests disease symptoms.

 

(c) List three factors which determine the degree of resistance of an animal to disease.

Answer:

Depending on the health status of the animal, it may respond to the invasion in any of the following processes:

i. Susceptibility: The organisms invade the cells successfully and establish as a result of the collapse of body defences. They produce disease conditions.

ii. Tolerance: The disease-causing organisms gain entry, multiply within the body cells, and may manifest in some symptoms but are unable to overwhelm the animal. The animal survives within the environment e.g. The Muturu and N’dama cows are said to be tolerant to Trypanosomiasis.

iii. Resistance: The invading organisms are destroyed by the animal’s body defences, thus the animal may remain in the environment where the disease organisms are prevalent without being clinically infected.

iv. Immunity: The micro-organisms may gain entry and establish, but do not spread as a result of their destruction by the animal’s body’s immunity, which is made up of antibodies. The animals do not show any signs of the disease.

 

2. (a) Define each of the following terms as used in animal health: (i) pests (ii) pathogen (iii) vectors (iv) parasites

Answer:

Definition of terms as used in Animal Health

(i) Pests: Pests are organisms, which through their feeding habits, cause physical damage and/or discomfort to other organisms called hosts,

(ii) Pathogens: These are micro-organisms that cause diseases in farm animals

(iii) Vectors: Vectors are also pests, which besides causing physical damage to the host, transmit disease-causing organisms to farm animals.

(iv) Parasites: A parasite is a living organism, which depends on host animals for its nutrition either at some stage or at all stages of its life. As a result of this, it causes injury or harm to farm animals. Ectoparasites like ticks live on the outside of their host, and endoparasites such as tapeworms live inside their host.

 

(b) Give one example of an organism described by each of the terms in 2(a) above.

Answer:

Pests:  Mites, Lice, Ticks, Houseflies, Mosquitoes, Sandflies, Tsetse flies
Pathogens:  Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Protozoa
Vectors:  Tsetse flies, Ticks, Mites, Fleas
Parasites:  Ticks, Lice, Mites, Fleas, Liver Flukes, Tapeworms, Roundworms.

 

(c) Enumerate four economic importance of animal disease.

Answer:

(i) The diseases bring about poor growth of animals.

(ii) Preventive and therapeutic treatment of animals generally increases the cost of production.

(iii) Disease reduces the quality of products e.g. fungal infections on the skin of animals, contaminated milk, etc.

(iv) Diseases in animals produce low income for farmers due to reduced quantity and quality of products and death of the animals.

(v) Zoonotic diseases may be transmitted to man by poor handling of infected animals, animal products or through consumption of infected animal products e.g. Anthrax, Tuberculosis, etc.

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