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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Topic Content:

  • Livestock Ectoparasites
    • Ticks, Lice, Mites
      • Modes of transmission and life cycle
      • Economic importance, prevention & control

Ectoparasites are parasites found living on the external parts of the body of host organisms, especially the skin. e.g. ticks, lice, and mites.

1. Ticks:

tick

Ticks are arachnids in terms of class. This parasite feeds on the blood of goats, cattle and pigs. They are parasites both at the young and the adult stage. The two important families of ticks that attack livestock are Ixodidae (hard tick) and Argasidae (soft tick).

They have four pairs of legs (eight legs) that are jointed and in claws. The body of a tick is globular and does not show external divisions into segments. The body is also covered with tough leathery integument. It possesses a toothed hypostome ( a piercing organ for sucking the host organism’s blood.)

Rhipicephalus microplus
Rhipicephalus microplus.

Ticks are flat when unfed but become almost spherical when engorged with blood. They are capable of taking in many times their own body weight of blood. There is sexual dimorphism, that is the male and female are different from each other. The male is small and does not suck blood, but the female is large and blood-sucking.

Ticks can carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens, including bacteria, spirochetes, rickettsiae, protozoa, viruses, nematodes, etc.

Life Cycle of Ticks:

The life cycle of most ticks occurs in four stages the eggs, the larvae, the nymphs and the adult stages.

life cycle of tick
Diagram of the Life Cycle of a Tick.

On the other hand, the stages of development of ticks occurring on the host depend upon the type of tick. Hence, we have three host ticks, two host ticks and one host ticks.

 

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