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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Content:

  • Theory Questions & Answers
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Evaluation Questions – Animal Improvement:

1. (a) What is animal improvement?

(b) State five (5) objectives of animal improvement.

(c) Explain three methods of animal improvement.

2. (a) Write short notes on the following systems of breeding:
(i) In-breeding; (ii) Line-breeding; (iii) Cross-breeding; (iv) Out-breeding.

3. (a) What is artificial insemination?

(b) State three methods of collecting semen from a proven male for use in artificial insemination.

 

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Evaluation – Animal Improvement

1. (a) What is animal improvement?

Answer:

Animal improvement refers to techniques used in developing and breeding animals with greatest merit/better characters over the existing ones.

Or

Refers to the process of transferring superior characters from one domesticated animal to another of the same species.

 

(b) State five (5) objectives of animal improvement.

Answer:

  • To produce animals with high/large yield e.g. meat, milk, egg, etc.
  • To produce animals with high feed conversion efficiency.
  • To produce animals which can adapt to the climate.
  • To produce disease resistant/tolerant animals
  • To produce animals with high fecundity and fertility.

 

(c) Explain three methods of animal improvement.

Answer:

(i) Introduction: Introduction is the first method to take if you must transfer new traits from other animals to your own. This step involves bringing foreign animals into your location or farm in order to help them get used to the new environment before any action can be carried out. It is important you know that you must quarantine the new breeds of animals to detect whether they are suffering from any infection or not.

(ii) Selection: This is the second method you are required to take if you must improve the quality of your animal by transferring features from one animal to another. This process requires you to select or separate the breed of animal that possess your desired quality and traits. Though this process is done in two ways – natural and artificial, most farmers are engaged in artificial selection because of its effectiveness and perfect result.

(iii) Breeding: This is the last step to take while transferring inheritable traits from parents to their offspring or the next generation. There are three types of breeding. They include: inbreeding, cross-breeding and outbreeding.

 

2. (a) Write short notes on the following systems of breeding:
(i) In-breeding; (ii) Line-breeding; (iii) Cross-breeding; (iv) Out-breeding.

Answer:

(i) In-breeding: This involves the mating of more closely related animals than the average of the population from which they come e.g. mating father to daughter, son to mother or brother to sister.  It produces offspring with undesirable characteristics because of recessive genes showing up. It also enables the farmer to get desired character or quality well developed in an animal.  In-breeding helps to produce inbred lines that can be used for cross-breeding to produce hybrid vigour. It also leads to inbreeding depression.

(ii) Line-breeding: It is closely related to or similar to in-breeding. It involves the mating of not too closely-related animals e.g. matings between cousins. It has the same disadvantage as in-breeding but it takes a longer period for undesirable traits of the pare to appear (i.e. in-breeding depression. it is used to consolidate traits for a sire or dam. Most of the high-quality commercial characters developed recently have been a result of line-breeding

(iii) Cross-breeding: It is the mating of proven quality animals from different breeds but the same species e.g. muturu × white Fulani. It leads to the production of heterosis/hybrid vigour.

(iv) Out-breeding: It is the mating of unrelated animals of the same breed, it recovers certain traits that may have been lost due to other breeding methods.

 

3. (a) What is artificial insemination?

Answer:

Artificial Insemination is an artificial process whereby semen is inserted into the female genital system. The process is carried out by man-made devices under man’s supervision, which is why it is often referred to as an artificial procedure.

 

(b) State three methods of collecting semen from a proven male for use in artificial insemination.

Answer:

(i) artificial vagina
(ii) massage method
(iii) electro-ejaculation
(iv) recovery of semen from the vagina after service.

 

(c) Enumerate three advantages and three disadvantages of Artificial Insemination (AI).

Answer:

Advantages of Artificial Insemination:

  • It makes it possible to use the best male animal to a large extent.
  • The semen of a good bull can still be used long after the death of the bull.
  • It brings about a reduction in the transmission of venereal and infectious diseases.

Disadvantages of Artificial Insemination

  • It requires expertise which may not be readily available.
  • Difficulties in detecting heat in female animals may limit the success of artificial insemination.
  • Inbreeding effects may show up if only a few bulls are used in a particular environment.
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