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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Content:

  • Theory Questions & Answers
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Evaluation Questions – Aquaculture:

1. (a) What is fish farming?

(b) List three (3) importance of fish farming.

(c) Give the scientific names of three fish species commonly stocked in a pond.

2. (a) Explain three ways of maintaining a fish pond.

(b) Describe five factors required for establishing a fish pond.

(c) State three factors that influence the choice of a suitable site for a fish pond.

(d) Describe the construction of a fish pond

(e) Enumerate six management practices for maintaining high fish yield

3. (a) Discuss briefly four fishery regulation.

(b) Enumerate two reasons why the use of chemicals is discouraged in fish harvesting

waec agric

4. (a) Identify the fishing tool illustrated by the diagram.

(b) Name the parts labelled A to D in the diagram.

 

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Evaluation – Aquaculture

1. (a) What is fish farming?

Answer: Fish farming, also called, fish culture, culture fishing or mariculture, is the rearing of selected species of fish under scientifically controlled conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams and rivers, where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for sale.

 

(b) List three (3) importance of fish farming.

Answer:

– Source of food for humans
– Provides fish meal for farm animals
– Provides employment
– Provides income
– Makes better use of land and water in the environment
– For medicinal purposes e.g, cod liver oil
– Source of foreign exchange
– For research activities
– For educational purposes
– For pleasure and recreation
– Source of raw materials for industries e.g scales, bones

 

(c) Give the scientific names of three fish species commonly stocked in a pond.

Answer:

  • Clarias spp
  • Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus
  • Gymnarchus niloticus
  • Tilapia spp
  • Lates niloticus
  • Gypramus carpis
  • Heterotis niloticus
  • Labeo spp
  • Heterobranchus spp
  • Hypothmichitys spp
  • Cyprinus spp
  • Ophiocephalus spp

 

2. (a) Explain three ways of maintaining a fish pond.

Answer:

Deweeding: This is the removal of weeds from the pond. It allows the dissolution of oxygen in water and the penetration of sunlight to the bottom of the pond which will promote the growth of fish food (plankton) and prevent the build-up of pests and diseases.

Desilting: This is the removal of silt or the prevention of silt from entering the pond. Desilting makes the water to be clean, promotes easy movement of fish within the water and also prevents pollution of the water.

Constant Supply of Water: The pond should always be filled with water and any leakage repaired.

Regular Application of Fertilizer: This should be done once a month to promote the growth of fish food (plankton).

 

(b) Describe five factors required for establishing a fish pond.

(i) Adequate water supply:

  • Water is one of the most important factors necessary for siting a fish pond because the habitat of fish is water.
  • The water must be clean and of high quality.
  • The right quantity must be available
  • The water must be free from pollution.
  • The water must not have a bad smell, taste or colour.

(ii) Soil in the area:

  • Fertile soil is the best soil because it contains nutrients.
  • Clay soil is recommended because of its ability to hold water.

(iii) Topography (or shape of the land):

The land must be built on a slope to;

  • ensure easy drainage of water during harvesting.
  • enable water to flow into the pond.

(iv) Availability of Market:

  • The fish pond should be sited in an area where harvested fishes can be easily marketed. For example, the marketing of fishes is easy and quick in the south-south zone of Nigeria.

(v) Availability of supplementary feedstuffs:

  • This promotes the rapid growth of fish.
  • It permits a high stocking density of fish.
  • It ensures early harvesting of the fish.

 

(c) State three factors that influence the choice of a suitable site for a fish pond.

Answer:

– Water supply/availability of water
– Availability of fast-growing fingerlings
– Vegetation of the area
– Topography
– Soil type
– Size of the pond to be constructed
– Availability of feeds/feed supplement
– Availability of labour
– Water quality
– Climate of the area
– Accessibility

 

(d) Describe the construction of a fish pond.

Answer:

(i) Choose a suitable site.

(ii) Clear the site of vegetation and stump if necessary.

(iii) Mark out the pond area.

(iv) Dig out the pond to the required depth (1 – 7m)

(v) Pond bottom should slope towards the outlet to help drainage during harvesting

(vi) Make provision for a harvesting trough at the deepest end of pond.

(vii) Construct a drainage system consisting of outlets and ditches.

(viii) Construct the water inlet at the shallow end and above the water level.

(ix) Construct the pond walls using a mixture of clay and sand.

(x) Seal the pond bottom with clay and firm the side walls.

(xi) Grass the embarkment to prevent soil erosion.

(xii) Construct a dyke around the pond mouth to prevent the inflow of run-off water into it.

(xiii) Fence pond with a net to keep off pests.

 

(e) Enumerate six management practices for maintaining high fish yield.

(i) Regular feeding.
(ii) Deweeding – Removal of weeds from pond.
(iii) Regular supply of clear and clean water.
(iv) Prevention of fish diseases.
(v) Keeping off predators.
(vi) Regular harvesting to prevent overpopulation.

 

3. (a) Discuss briefly four fishery regulations.

Answer:

Four fishery regulations are:

(i) No vessel (except canoes) shall fish within the first two nautical miles of the waters of the Nigerian continental shelf

(ii) Catch quota is a form of control in which a fisherman is allowed to catch a specific quantity and it is established to regulate the number of fishermen by issuing them fishing permits at a specified amount.

(iii) The use of any explosive substances is prohibited.

(iv) The use of noxious or poisonous materials is prohibited as this can kill virtually all categories of fishes in the water.

 

(b) Enumerate two reasons why the use of chemicals is discouraged in fish harvesting.

Answer:

  • It causes the death of fishes.
  • It pollutes the environment.

 

waec agric

 

4. (a) Identify the fishing tool illustrated by the diagram.

Answer: Hook and line.

 

(b) Name the parts labelled A to D in the diagram.

  • A – Line /thread/ twine/ rope / string.
  • B – Flot
  • C – Hook
  • D – hand Stick / rod

 

(c) List five other fishing tools or gears.

Answer:

  • cast net
  • scoop net
  • drag / draw net / seine net
  • clap nets
  • set net
  • trawler with seine net
  • electro-fishing
  • fish traps
  • gill net
  • fishing basket

(d) State five methods of fish preservation.

Answer:

  • sun drying
  • smoking
  • salting / curing
  • freezing/refrigeration
  • canning
  • oven – drying
  • irradiation

 

(e) State two by-products of fish processing.

Answer:

  • Fish meal.
  • Cod liver oil / Fish oil.
  • Fish skin.
  • Fish scales.

 

(f) Describe four methods of harvesting fish.

Answer:

Four methods of harvesting fish are:

(i) Use of Nets: This involves the use of various types of nets like gill nets, cast nets, etc. which have been woven into various sizes and thicknesses and are thrown into water for fish haulage.

(ii) Use of Traps: These are gears made from ropes woven into various models of enclosures for capturing fishes.

(iii) Draining of Ponds: This entails the removal of all water in the pond in order to harvest the fishes. A hand or scoop net is used for scooping out fish from the drained ponds.

(iv) The Use of Hook and Line: The use of hooks which are baited and tied to strings and set across the water to catch fish.

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