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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Topic Content:

  • Definition of Crop Improvement
  • Breeding for Crop Improvement
  • Aims of Crop Improvement
  • Summary
crop improvement

Definition of Crop Improvement: 

Crop improvement can be defined as the breeding and development of plant varieties which are better than existing varieties. It can also be referred to as the application of biological science in the improvement of crops and the breeding of new crop varieties, superior in quality and quantity.

It refers to the genetic alteration of plants to satisfy human needs.

Breeding for Crop Improvement:

Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics, which are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are disease resistant. 

The branch of agricultural science which deals with crop improvement is called plant breeding.

Plant breeding is defined as the art, science and technology of improving the genetic makeup of crop plants in relation to their economic use for mankind.

Plant breeders detect plant characteristics, which are likely to be of economic value, develop them, and make them available to farmers.

Objectives of Crop Improvement:

  • To Increase Yields: the yield of the crops can be increased by allowing cross-breeding and hybridization of several plants. This can give a better yield per unit of land.
  • To Improve the Quality of Crop: Plant characteristics, such as taste, size, colour, and nutritional value can be improved or increased with the help of soil and crop productivity knowledge.
  • To Adapt Crops to Climate Conditions: It is one of the aims of plant breeders to produce crops that are able to withstand extreme conditions of cold, drought and wind.
  • To Meet the Needs of Industrialists: Crop breeders sometimes breed crops to meet the various needs of industrialists who use most agricultural crops as raw materials.
  • To Increase Resistance to Pests & Diseases: Crops should be developed such that they can withstand biotic stresses like crop diseases due to many insects and pests. Resistance to disease can lead to an increase in the yield and quality of the crop too.
  • To Increase Supply: The needs of the demand can be fulfilled by proper planning, understanding the soil fertility and using technology for the harvest. An increase in the yield of the plant can help to meet the demands.
  • To Obtain Uniformity of Plant: Plants which grow and mature uniformly facilitate mechanisation and ease of harvesting.
  • To improve Harvesting Qualities: Crops that can be harvested with ease without damage to seeds/fruits are preferred by breeders.
  • To Improve the Nutritional Value of the Produce: Breeders try to produce crops with high nutritional value like high protein, vitamins, minerals etc., which are of high value to human beings.

Summary:

The major objectives of crop variety improvement are as follows: Increasing the yield of plant products. Improving the quality of food crops. Producing varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stress.

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