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SS3: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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  1. Crop Improvement | Week 1
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Animal Improvement | Week 2
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Animal Health Management I - Introduction | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Animal Health Management II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Animal Health Management III | Week 5
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Aquaculture | Week 6
    11 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Apiculture or Bee-keeping | Week 7
    10 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Topic Content:

  • Plant Introduction
    • Important Crops and Centres of Origin
    • Advantages & Disadvantages of Plant Introduction
  • Selection
    • Methods of selection
    • Advantages & Disadvantages of Plant Introduction
  • Hybridization or Breeding
    • Types of Breeding
    • Advantages & Disadvantages of Breeding

The processes involved in crop improvement include Plant Introduction, Selection and Hybridization or Mutation Breeding

1. Plant Introduction:

This is the introduction of crops from their places of origin to new locations where they can be grown. For example, West Africa is the origin of crops like Kola, Coffee, Oil palm, etc. but they have been introduced into many tropical countries. Rubber originated from Brazil in South America and they are now grown in many African Countries.

Any Crop being introduced into a country is quarantined, that is they are isolated for a period of time during which they are tested for pests and diseases. Such plants could be allowed into a country if certified and declared free from pests and diseases.

Important Crops and Centres of Origin:

S/NCropCenter of Origin
i.CocoaBrazil in South America
ii.Oil PalmCentral and West Africa
iii.CottonCentral Asia
iv.RiceAfrica and Asia
v.MaizeTropical America
vi.YamWest Africa and Asia
vii.OnionWestern Asia
viii.TomatoCentral and South America

Advantages of Introduction:

  • It supplements already available stock in an area or country.
  • Improved stock with desirable characteristics can be acquired.
  • It leads to the development of new and superior crop varieties.
  • It helps to determine how well the crops can adapt to the soil and climatic conditions in the country.
  • Selected varieties are used for cross-breeding local ones in order to produce high yielding.

 

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