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SS3: CHEMISTRY - 2ND TERM

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  1. Quality of Petrol (Octane Number)| Week 1
    1 Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Natural Gas | Week 2
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Introduction to Metals | Week 3
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. The Alkali Metals | Week 4
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Alkaline Earth Metals | Week 5
    4 Topics
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    1 Quiz
  6. Aluminium & Tin | Week 6
    3 Topics
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    1 Quiz
  7. Transition Metals of the First Series | Week 7
    4 Topics
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    1 Quiz
  8. Ethical, Legal & Social Issues | Week 8
    3 Topics
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    1 Quiz
  9. Fats & Oils - Soaps & Detergents | Week 9
    4 Topics
  10. Giant Molecules | Week 10
    6 Topics



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The most common ores of Iron, Fe are haematite, Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. Iron is found in commercial quantities in Edo, Anambra and Kogi states of Nigeria.

Extraction of Iron

Iron is extracted from its oxide ore by reduction using carbon in a blast furnace. The furnace is made of steel and it is able to offer a very high temperature. The ore is first roasted (to convert sulphur impurities to oxide) to obtain iron (III) oxide. The iron (III) oxide is then mixed with coke and calcium trioxocarbonate and heated at a high temperature in the blast furnace. These increments are added from the top of the furnace. The coke combusts to produce about 2000oC at the bottom of the blast furnace. 

C(s) + O2(g)  → CO2(g)

This combustion reaction produces the heat needed for the process. The CO2(g) formed is reduced to CO at the top of the furnace.

extraction of iron


The carbon (II) oxide reacts with iron (III) oxide to produce molten iron.

Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) → 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g)

The heat of the furnace decomposes the limestone to give calcium oxide.

CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)

This reaction is endothermic. Calcium oxide formed reacts with impurities like Silicon (IV) oxide in the ore to form calcium trioxosilicate (IV). The product formed is often called ‘slag’. The essence of this reaction is also to remove impurities.

CaO(s) + SiO2(s) → CaSiO3(l)

Uses of Iron

  1. Iron is very useful in the manufacture of steel. Steels are alloys of iron with carbon nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and manganese. Steels are widely used in constructions such as bridges. 
  2. It is used in building to reinforce concrete, girders, etc.
  3. Iron is used as a catalyst in the Haber process.
  4. Iron and its alloys and other compounds are used in making magnets.
  5. Iron is very important to the biological system. Haemoglobin in the blood contains iron. 

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