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SS3: ECONOMICS - 2ND TERM

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  1. Balance of Payment I | Week 1
    4 Topics
  2. Balance of Payment II | Week 2
    4 Topics
  3. Economic Growth & Development | Week 3
    1 Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Economic Development Planning | Week 4
    2 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. International Economic Organisations I | Week 5
    4 Topics
  6. International Economic Organisations II | Week 6
    6 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Current Economic Plans | Week 7
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Economic Development Challenges | Week 8
    4 Topics
  9. Economic Reform Programs | Week 9
    5 Topics



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HIV means human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS is defined as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the result of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and it is also the result of other opportunistic infections which invade the body as a result of its diminishing capacity for resistance. HIV is passed on through body fluids, the commonest avenues for transmission today are unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, shared needles and transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or breast feeding.

HIV/AIDS has come to be regarded with unusual fear, self-guilt, shame, and paralyzing hopelessness.  HIV is not like malaria or meningitis, which has distinctive symptoms and for which treatments are available. HIV gradually destroys the body’s immune system and makes the individual progressively more and more vulnerable to their infections. A person with HIV may be well for many years and then begin to suffer from skin complaints, chest infections, diarrhea, and other problems. Eventually, it becomes increasingly difficult for the person to lead a normal life, and the person is described as having AIDS.

There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS, though there are medications which can prolong the period of a normal healthy life. Two decades after the first clinical evidence of AIDS was reported, it has remained the most devastating disease humankind has ever faced with more than 60 million people having been infected with the virus. According to the UNAIDS update (2001), HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and the fourth biggest killer worldwide. As of the end of 2001, UNAIDS reported that out of the estimated 40 million people living with HIV globally, 28.1 million of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is sitting at the precipice of disaster as the epidemic is predicted to grow at an exponential rate.

Causes of HIV/AIDS

These include; Biological, Cultural and Economic factors.

(1) Biological Factor: HIV transmission is 2.5 times more efficient from a man to woman vice-versa. The semen has a higher concentration of HIV than vaginal secretion.

(2) Cultural practices where women insert herbal and chemical preparations into the vagina to cause dryness in order to please men who prefer ‘dry sex’ predispose women to HIV infection.

(3) Among the cultural factors is wife, inheritance, which is still common place in Nigeria.

(4) The economic dependence of women on men in many societies also contributes to women’s vulnerability to HIV infection.

(5) Women often lack the information, knowledge, skills, or services they need to protect themselves. Information material on HIV/AIDS is not universally available to women especially those in rural areas.

(6) HIV infection and poverty are in an unholy alliance.

(7) It could be transferred through an unsterilized instrument, genital mutilation causes scaring which increases the chance of ‘tear’ during intercourse thus creating a pathway for the transfer of HIV from an infected male partner.

Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS

1. There should be an extensive, intensive, and sustained public enlightenment programme to educate the populace at all levels of society on the causes and prevention of AIDS and how to relate with victims of AIDS.

2. Many centres should be established (even up to the rural areas) for medical examination of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS infection.

3. Piercing objects and other equipment should be sterilized, handling of blood and other potential specimens should be done with care.

4. Specific concentration should be directed to the education of the addicts to discourage the sharing of needles.

5. More emphasis must be laid on health promotion, specific protection, early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

Practical Control of HIV/AIDS

1. Surveillance, education on sex behaviours

2. Abstinence from sex especially the unmarried

3. Faithfulness among married adults

4. Stable monogamy

5. Use of condoms

6. Reduction of blood transfusion, careful inspection of blood before transfusion, and control of drug abuse

As HIV prevalence rises in the general population, the chance of encountering an infected partner close to the beginning of one’s sexual life also rises. The higher the population prevalence of the virus, the more dangerous it is for society. Most countries affected by HIV have attempted to include information about the disease in their school curricular. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is threatening. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is not just a social problem; it is a major threat to productivity and the economy. Effective health care delivery system, especially aspects directed at combating HIV/AIDS and other preventable diseases (malaria and tuberculosis) is a key strategy for preserving a healthy workforce.

Evaluation Questions

1. Outline how we can prevent HIV/AIDS.

2. Explain the introduction of the National Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria.

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Evaluation questions

1. Outline how we can prevent HIV/AIDS.

2. Explain the introduction of the National Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria.

Solution

1. Outline how we can prevent HIV/AIDS

i. More emphasis must be laid on health promotion, specific protection, early diagnosis and prompt treatment

ii. Specific concentration should be directed to the education of the addicts to discourage sharing of needles

iii. Piercing objects and other equipment should be sterilized. Handling of blood and other potential specimens should be done with care

iv. Many centres should be established for medical examination of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS infection

v. There should be an extensive, intensive, and sustainable public enlightenment programme to educate the populace at all levels of the society on the causes and prevention of AIDS and how to relate with victims of AIDS.

2. Explain the introduction of the National Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria

NAPEP was introduced by the Federal government in the year 2000 and took off in 2001. It was aimed at eradicating absolute poverty and it consists of four schemes namely:

i. Youth Empowerment Scheme, Rural infrastructure and development scheme

ii. Social welfare services scheme

iii. Rural resources development

iv. Conservation scheme 25billion from 2001 till date has been received by NAPEP for the fight against poverty in Nigeria.

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