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Lesson 7, Topic 2
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Radioactivity is the spontaneous decay or disintegration of the nucleus of the atom of a radioactive element during which radiations ( α, β and γ-particles) and energy are emitted

Radioactive elements are elements that are capable of spontaneous decay with emission of radiation and energy. Examples of such elements are uranium, boron, thorium, radon, cobalt, radium.

Natural radioactivity is the splitting or breakdown of nuclei of elements on their own without any stimulation from man, during which α-particles,  β -particles,  γ-ray, or combination of any of these with accompanied energy.

$$\scriptsize _{13} ^{27} \textrm {Al} + \; _{2} ^{4} \textrm {He} \rightarrow \; _{15} ^{30} \textrm {P} + \; _{0} ^{1} \textrm {n} \rightarrow \; _{14} ^{30} \textrm {S} + \; _{1} ^{0} \textrm {e} + energy$$

When an aluminum is bombarded with helium or alpha particles, it gives rise to unstable phosphorus nuclei (radioactive phosphorus) which disintegrates further spontaneously into stable silicon atoms

Neutrons, protons and alpha particles are used as very effective bombarding particles for disintegrations of nuclei of elements.

Radioisotopes are isotopes made artificially by bombarding neutrons or proton or deuterons at elements