JAMB 2022 Syllabus for Biology

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The JAMB Syllabus is a comprehensive listing of topics from which questions would be set on all subject areas. The syllabus has been specifically designed to guide candidates to adequately prepare for the examination.

Below is the JAMB 2022 Syllabus for Biology;


Part A: Variety of Organisms:

1. Living organisms:

(a) Characteristics

(b) Cell structure and functions of cell Components

(c) Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas

2. Evolution among the following:

(a). Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.

(b). Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium

(c). Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.

(d). Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Bryachymenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)

(e). Animalia (animals)

i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)


(a) Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of Organism

(b). Adaptive colouration and its functions

(c). Behavioural adaptations in social animals

(d). Structural adaptations in organisms.

Part B: Form & Functions:

1. Internal Structure of a Flowering Plant:

i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf

(b). Internal structure of a mammal

2. Nutrition:

(a). Modes of nutrition:
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic

(b) Types of Nutrition

(c) Plant nutrition:
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)

(d) Animal Nutrition:
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested

3. Transport:

(a). Need for transportation

(b). Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)

(c). Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

(d) Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.

4. Respiration:

(a). Respiratory organs and surfaces

(b). The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
i. Plants
ii. Mammals

(c). Aerobic respiration

(d). Anaerobic respiration

5. Excretion:

(a). Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.

(b). Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin

(c). Excretory products of plants

6. Support and Movement:

(a). Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants

(b). Supporting tissues in animals

(c). Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction:

(a). A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

(b). sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction

(c) Reproduction in mammals
(i) structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
(ii) Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)

8. Growth:

(a). Meaning fo grwoth

(b). Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

9. Co-ordination and Control:

(a). Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action

(b). The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)

(c). Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones

(d) Homeostasis
(i) Body temperature regulation
(ii) Salt and water regulation

Part C: Ecology:

1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms:

i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic

2. Symbiotic Interactions of Plants and Animals:

(a) Food chains, food webs and trophic levels

(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.

(c) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle

3. Natural Habitats:

(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)

(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian Biomes)

(a). Tropical rainforest

(b). Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

(c). Sudan Savanna

(d). Desert

(e). Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.

5. The Ecology of Populations:

(a) Population density and overcrowding.

(b) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH,

(c). Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession

6. Soil:

(a) Characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
(i) Soil structure
(ii) Porosity, capillarity and humus content
(iii) Components of the soil

(i) inorganic
(ii) organic
(iii) soil organisms

(b) Soil fertility:
(i) loss of soil fertility
(ii) Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

7. Humans and Environment:

(a) Diseases:
i Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.

(b). Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources

(d) Game reserves and National parks

Part D: Heredity and Variations:

1. Variation in Population:

(a). Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints

(b). Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups

(c) Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity.

2. Heredity:

(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.

(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

(d) Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine

(e). Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.

Part E: Evolution:

1. Theories of Evolution:

(a) Lamarck’s theory

(b) Darwin’s theory

(c) organic theory

2. Evidence of Evolution:

JAMB Biology Syllabus 2022 Recommended Textbook

  • Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman
  • Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann
  • Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and
  • Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan
  • Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP
  • Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann
  • Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman
  • Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited


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