The JAMB Syllabus is a comprehensive listing of topics from which questions would be set on all subject areas. The syllabus has been specifically designed to guide candidates to adequately prepare for the examination.
Below is the JAMB 2022 Syllabus for Biology;
Part A: Variety of Organisms:
1. Living organisms:
(b) Cell structure and functions of cell Components
(c) Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
(a). Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
(b). Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
(c). Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
(d). Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Bryachymenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
(e). Animalia (animals)
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
(a) Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of Organism
(b). Adaptive colouration and its functions
(c). Behavioural adaptations in social animals
(d). Structural adaptations in organisms.
Part B: Form & Functions:
1. Internal Structure of a Flowering Plant:
(b). Internal structure of a mammal
(a). Modes of nutrition:
i. An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food using light, water, carbon dioxide, or other chemicals. It feeds itself, without the assistance of any other organisms. The word... More
ii. A heterotroph is an organism that consumes other organisms in a food chain. The term stems from the Greek words hetero for “other” and trophe for “nourishment.” More
(b) Types of Nutrition
(c) Plant nutrition:
i. Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants, and some algae and bacteria, convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. This energy is then used to synthesize carbohydrates such as... More
ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)
(d) Animal Nutrition:
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (Ingestion is the process of taking food into the body through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking. More, Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food compounds into small water-soluble components so that they can be absorbed into the blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed... More, Absorption is the movement of digested food molecules from the digestive system into the blood (glucose and amino acids) and lymph (fatty acids and glycerol). The small intestine absorbs most of... More, and 1. the process of taking in and fully understanding information or ideas. 2. the absorption and digestion of food or nutrients by the body or any biological system. More of digested
(a). Need for transportation
(b). Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
(c). Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (Phloem is a plant vascular tissue that conducts foods made in the leaves during photosynthesis, downwards to all other parts of the plant. More and Xylem is a plant vascular tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves and also provides physical support. Xylem is one of the two... More)
(d) Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
(a). Respiratory organs and surfaces
(b). The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
(c). An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. The ability to exhibit aerobic respiration may yield benefits to the aerobic organism, as... More respiration
(d). An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require molecular oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if free oxygen is present. Anaerobic means living,... More respiration
(a). Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.
(b). Excretory mechanisms:
(c). Excretory products of plants
6. Support and Movement:
(a). Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants
(b). Supporting tissues in animals
(c). Types and functions of the skeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
(a). A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
(b). sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
(c) Reproduction in mammals
(i) structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
(ii) Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)
(a). Meaning fo grwoth
(b). Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and Control:
(a). Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
(b). The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
(c). Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– adrenal gland
– The gonads, the primary reproductive organs, are the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female. These reproductive organs are essential for sexual reproduction since they are responsible for... More
ii. Plant hormones
(i) Body temperature regulation
(ii) Salt and water regulation
Part C: Ecology:
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms:
2. Symbiotic Interactions of Plants and Animals:
(a) Food chains, food webs and trophic levels
(b) Energy is the ability to do work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, and electrical energy. Units of Energy: The SI unit... More flow in the ecosystem.
(c) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats:
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.
4. Local (Nigerian Biomes)
(a). Tropical rainforest
(b). Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
(c). Sudan Savanna
(e). Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population Density is the measurement of how tightly a material is packed together i.e. how closely the particles are packed in the material. The tighter the material is packed the more its... More and overcrowding.
(b) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, Topography can be defined as the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area refers to the surface shapes and features on the ground and... More, pressure, pH,
(c). Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
(a) Characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
(i) Soil structure
(ii) Porosity, capillarity and humus content
(iii) Components of the soil
(iii) soil organisms
(b) Soil fertility:
(i) loss of soil fertility
(ii) Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
7. Humans and Environment:
i Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
(b). Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(d) Game reserves and National parks
Part D: Heredity and Variations:
1. Variation in Population:
(a). Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
(b). Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
(c) Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity.
(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.
(d) Application of the principles of heredity in:
(e). Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
Part E: Evolution:
1. Theories of Evolution:
(a) Lamarck’s theory
(b) Darwin’s theory
(c) organic theory
2. Evidence of Evolution:
JAMB Biology Syllabus 2022 Recommended Textbook
- Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman
- Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann
- Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and
- Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan
- Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP
- Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann
- Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman
- Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited