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Question 1

(a) Define base in terms of the following

(i) Arrhenius  

Answer – Arrhenius defined a base as a substance that produces a hydrous ion (OH) when dissolved in water or in an aqueous solution e.g. KOH.

(ii) Bronsted-Lowry    

Bronsted-Lowry defined a base as a proton acceptor      

(iii) Lewis

Lewis defined a base as an electron-pair donor  


(b)Give two examples each   

(i) Basic Oxide   

Answer – Basic oxide – Na2O, CaO

(ii) Basic Hydroxide

Answer – Basic hydroxide – KOH, NaOH



Answer –

(i) What is Neutralization reaction

Neutralization reaction is a reaction in which acid reacts with a base to form salt and water only.


(ii) Using a well-balanced equation give one example of a Neutralization reaction

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Question 2

(a)  What do you understand by PH of a solution?

Answer – PH of a solution is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the solution

(b)Below is a table of four solutions and their PH values

8 2 7 13

Which of them is likely to be  

(i) Strongly acidic      

Answer –  X  2

(ii) Neutral 

Answer –  Y   7

(iii) Strongly basic      

Answer –  W   8    

(v) Weakly basic

Answer –  Z  13

Question 3

3(a)(i) What is a Universal Indicator?

Answer – A universal indicator is a mixture of dyes

(ii) Mention the TWO main Laboratory Indicators

Answer – Phenolpthalein, methyl orange

(iii) Give the colour of the Indicator mentioned 

in Acidic

Answer – Pink


Answer – Yellow

Neutral medium

Answer – Orange

Question 4

a(i) What is an Alkali?

Answer – An alkali is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water

(ii)Give THREE physical properties of Alkali

Answer –

1. They have soapy feel or touch

2.They turn litmus paper blue

3. Concentrated forms of caustic alkalis are corrosive

(b)How would you prove that Sodium hydroxide is a base without using Litmus paper to test? Give an equation for the reaction

Answer –  E.g. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Question 5

(a) Using a well-balanced equation state how NaOH reacts with the following (i) H2SO4   (ii) NH4NO3

Answer – 

 2NaOH + H2SO4  → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

NaOH + NH4HO3  → NaNO3 + NH3 + H2O

(b)Give TWO ways in which a base can be prepared.

Answer – 

(i) Action of a soluble base on water

(ii) Decomposition reaction

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