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Classification of Matter:

1. Elements.
2. Compounds.
3. Mixtures.

Compounds:

A compound is a substance formed when two or more elements are chemically combined together and can be separated only by chemical means into the substances it is composed of. Examples of chemical compounds are water (H2O), sodium chloride or salt (NaCl), ethanol (C2H5OH), etc.

Properties of a Compound

1. The components of compounds are chemically combined together and they can only be separated by chemical means.

2. Compounds have a fixed boiling point, freezing point and melting point.

3. The properties of compounds are different from the properties of their components.

Examples of some commonly used compounds and their molecular formula:

Compound NameCompound Formula
AlcoholC2H6O
Acetic AcidC2H4O2
Sulphuric AcidH2SO4
AmmoniaNH3
MethaneCH4
Nitrous oxideN2O
SaltNaCl

Elements:

An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler components. Examples of elements are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, magnesium, nitrogen, chlorine, etc.

Examples of some commonly used elements along with their chemical symbols:

Name of the elementChemical symbol
Hydrogen(H)
Boron(B)
Carbon(C)
Silicon(Si)
Sodium(Na)
Lead(Pb)
Platinum(Pt)

Mixtures:

A Mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances, which can also be separated by physical means. Examples are air, crude oil, and seawater.

A mixture of salt and sand can easily be made by mixing the substances together. It can be separated into the constituent component because of no chemical change is involved in its formation. Some mixtures are not made but occur naturally. Some examples are air, crude oil, etc.

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