Quiz 11 of 25

2015 Geography WAEC Theory Past Questions CBTdrsoji

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(a) Calculation for the new map outline
The old scale = 1:50,000
We are to reduce the map to thrice of its original size
Thus formula for map reduction: Size will increase
Scale will reduce
The new scale = 1:50,000 x 3 = 1: 150,000
The length measured = 37.5cm
New (enlarged) length = 37.5cm ÷ 3 = 12.5cm
The breadth measured = 12.3cm
New (enlarged) length = 36.9cm ÷ 3 = 12.3cm

(b)Insertions and naming
(i) Pra and its directions of flow
(ii) Class 3 road-running from PRASO settlement to AKIN OFOASE settlement
(iii) KOTOKUOM settlement

(c) Drainage characteristics of River Pra
- River Pra flows from the North to the South
- Meanders all through its course
- Has many tributaries e.g Maman, Asuakoko
- Exhibits dendritic drainage pattern
- It has many confluences
- Flows through a narrow valley

(d) Functions of Akimofoase
- Religious function due to the presence of churches and mosques
- Educational function due to the presence of schools
- Security function due to the presence of police station
- Health care function due to the presence of clinic
- Commercial function due to the presence of clinic
- Transportation function due to the presence of nodal town
- Judicial function due to the presence of court house

(a) A Divided bar graph showing the total number of crops cultivation by farmers from 2005 to 2007

(b) Total numbers of farmers who cultivated rice in 2005
= 45+ 55 + 70 = 170 farmers

(c) Differences between simple bar graph and component/ divided bar graph
Component or divided bar graph shows many components while simple bar graph indicates only one component

(a)
(i) Rotation of the Earth: This is the movement of the earth on its axis from west to east (in an anti-clockwise direction). The rotating earth is inclined at an angle of 23 ½ degrees. It takes the earth 24hours (which equals a day) to complete its rotation.
(ii) Revolution of the Earth: This is the movement of the earth around the sun in its own orbit. The revolving earth is inclined at an angle of 66 ½ degrees. It takes the earth 365 ¼ days to complete its revolution around the sun.
(iii) Equinox: This means the equal length of days and nights. It occurs twice in a year (both are on March 21 and September 23). An equinox occurs when the earth is overhead at the Equator.

(b)
Effects of the revolution of the Earth
-It brings about seasons: Two seasons (wet and dry seasons) in the tropical region and four seasons in the temperate region (i.e winter, summer, autumn, and spring)
- Changes in the altitude of the midday sun: This brings about solstice and equinox
- It causes a year i.e the earth revolve through 360 degrees in 363 ¼ days

(a) Landforms found in the upper course of a river are;
- River capture or piracy
- Waterfall
- Gorge
- V-shaped valley

(b) Characteristics of an OX-bow lake
- It is a feature of the lower course of a river
- It is also known as cut-offs or bayous
- It is found at the concave bank of a river
Mode of formation
In the lower course of a river, a meander becomes very much pronounced. The outside bend or concave bank is so rapidly eroded that the river becomes almost a complete circle. There will come a time when the river cuts through the narrow neck of the loop, abandoning an ox-bow lake or Mortlake (meaning dead lake). The river degenerates into a swamp through subsequent floods that may silt up the lake. It becomes marshy, and eventually dries up


Diagram of an Ox-bow lake

(a) Types of mountains
- Block Mountain
- Fold mountain
- Volcanic mountain
- Residual mountain

(b) Importance of mountains to man
- It serves as a centre of tourist attraction e.g. Mount Kilimanjaro
- Sources of rivers e.g. river Niger from Fouta Djallon highland
- Formation of rainfall e.g. relief rainfall
- Source of raw materials for industries e.g. Coal, Gold, Tin
- For transhumance

(c) Problems caused by mountains
- Barriers to the construction of transportation facilities e.g roads
- They occupy good land which can be used for agriculture
- They promote soil erosion

(a) Definition of Climate
Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time, usually about 35years.

(b) Climatic belts recognized by the Greek system of classification
The belts or zones are Torrid, Frigid, and Temperate zone
Torrid Zone: It is found within the tropics. This zone is very hot and has high temperatures throughout the year.
Temperate zone: This is found between the torrid and frigid zone. It has mild or moderate temperatures and has seasonal contrasts in temperature
Frigid zone: This is found in the polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic region). It is generally cold with low temperatures throughout the year.

(c) Reasons why Kopper’s system of climate classification is the most widely accepted
- It is very simple to understand
- It is objective in nature
- It is commonly used in educational institutions
- It uses only one parameter for classification i.e temperature

(a) Environmental hazards are disasters caused by nature or man which pose a serious danger or risk to the lives and properties of people in their environment.

(b) Examples of environmental hazards;
- Soil erosion
- Flooding
- Drought
- Deforestation
- Desert encroachment

(c) Ways of preventing desert encroachment;
- Afforestation: Planting of trees
- Irrigation: Artificial application of water to encourage the growth of vegetation
- Cover cropping: Legumes planting reduces desert encroachment
- Legislation against bush burning
- Controlled tree felling
- Rotational grazing
- Environmental education

(a) Features of coastal erosion;
- Capes and bays
- Cliffs and wave-cut platforms
- Caves, arch, stack, and stump
- Geos and gloups

(b) (i) Characteristics of a beach
It is made up of sands and gravels loosened from the land which are moved by waves and deposited along the shore.

(ii) Mode of formation of a beach
The dominant form of the constructive work of the sea is the beach. The eroded materials are transported along the shore in several distinct ways. The long-short drift which comes obliquely to the coast carries the material along the shore in the direction of the dominant wind. At the same time, the backwash removes part of the material seawards along the bed of the sea and deposits it on the off-shore terrace and even beyond. Finer materials such as silt and mud are deposited in the shallow waters of a sheltered coast


Diagram of a beach

(a) Commodities exported from my country;
- Cocoa
- Crude oil
- Tin and columbite
- Palm oil
- Rubber
- Cotton

(b) Reasons for the low volume of trade among West African countries;
- Low level of technology
- High tariff and trade restrictions
- Inadequate capital
- Low level of savings
- Political instability
- Poor quality of goods

(c) Ways of improving trade among West African countries;
- Improvement of technology in west African
- Regulation of trade barriers and removal of tariff
- Provision of adequate capital
- Increase in salaries and wages
- Encourage of stable government policies
- Improvement in the quality of produce.

(a)(i) Death rate: This is the rate at which people die per thousand in a country. It is measured in persons per thousand
(ii) Population explosion: This is the rapid increase in the population of a place over a period of time.

(b) Factors that influence death rate in tropical Africa;
- Poverty
- Natural disasters
- Illiteracy
- Health care services
- Conflicts
- Family planning

(c) Effects of a growing population in tropical Africa;
- Poor waste management
- Migration for greener opportunities
- High cost of living
- Traffic congestion
- Easy spread of disease
- Inadequate housing
- Pressure on social amenities

(a) Factors to be considered in the location of an industry:
- Availability of Labour
- Availability of raw materials
- Availability of capital
- Political stability
- Availability of power supply
- Availability of good transport network

(b) Benefits of industrialization:
- It helps in the diversification of the economy
- Source of foreign exchange
- Increase in Gross National product
- Employment opportunities
- Provision of funds for educational institutions
- Development of infrastructural facilities

(a) Map of Nigeria showing its climate zones

(b) Characteristics of the wet season in Nigeria:
- High temperature
- Heavy rainfall
- High relative humidity
- Rainfall accompanied by thunderstorm

(c) Cash crops grown during the wet seasons in Nigeria:
- Maize
- Cotton
- Cashew
- Cocoa
- Kolanut

(a) Problems of agricultural development in Nigeria:
- Outbreak of pest and disease
- Inadequate storage facilities
- Inadequate capital
- Inadequate transport facilities
- Poor land tenure system
- Preference for foreign produce
- Soil erosion

(b) Solutions to problems of agricultural development in Nigeria:
- Use of disease control measures
- Provision of adequate storage facilities
- Provision of loan facility
- Improvement of transport network
- Restrictions on importation

(a)  Map of Nigeria showing its vegetation zones

(b) The trees found in the forest zone of Nigeria:
- Iroko
- Obeche
- Mahogany
- Tick

(c) Contributions of forest vegetation to economic development in Nigeria:
- Sources of fuel wood for cooking
- Sources of raw materials for industries
- Tourist attractions
- Provision of wildlife
- Source of foreign exchange
- Employment opportunities e.g lumbering

(a) Calculation for the new map outline
The old scale = 1:50,000
We are to reduce the map to thrice of its original size
Thus formula for map reduction: Size will increase
Scale will reduce
The new scale = 1:50,000 x 3 = 1: 150,000
The length measured = 37.5cm
New (enlarged) length = 37.5cm ÷ 3 = 12.5cm
The breadth measured = 12.3cm
New (enlarged) length = 36.9cm ÷ 3 = 12.3cm

(b)Insertions and naming
(i) Pra and its directions of flow
(ii) Class 3 road-running from PRASO settlement to AKIN OFOASE settlement
(iii) KOTOKUOM settlement

(c) Drainage characteristics of River Pra
- River Pra flows from the North to the South
- Meanders all through its course
- Has many tributaries e.g Maman, Asuakoko
- Exhibits dendritic drainage pattern
- It has many confluences
- Flows through a narrow valley

(d) Functions of Akimofoase
- Religious function due to the presence of churches and mosques
- Educational function due to the presence of schools
- Security function due to the presence of police station
- Health care function due to the presence of clinic
- Commercial function due to the presence of clinic
- Transportation function due to the presence of nodal town
- Judicial function due to the presence of court house

(a) A Divided bar graph showing the total number of crops cultivation by farmers from 2005 to 2007

(b) Total numbers of farmers who cultivated rice in 2005
= 45+ 55 + 70 = 170 farmers

(c) Differences between simple bar graph and component/ divided bar graph
Component or divided bar graph shows many components while simple bar graph indicates only one component

(a)
(i) Rotation of the Earth: This is the movement of the earth on its axis from west to east (in an anti-clockwise direction). The rotating earth is inclined at an angle of 23 ½ degrees. It takes the earth 24hours (which equals a day) to complete its rotation.
(ii) Revolution of the Earth: This is the movement of the earth around the sun in its own orbit. The revolving earth is inclined at an angle of 66 ½ degrees. It takes the earth 365 ¼ days to complete its revolution around the sun.
(iii) Equinox: This means the equal length of days and nights. It occurs twice in a year (both are on March 21 and September 23). An equinox occurs when the earth is overhead at the Equator.

(b)
Effects of the revolution of the Earth
-It brings about seasons: Two seasons (wet and dry seasons) in the tropical region and four seasons in the temperate region (i.e winter, summer, autumn, and spring)
- Changes in the altitude of the midday sun: This brings about solstice and equinox
- It causes a year i.e the earth revolve through 360 degrees in 363 ¼ days

(a) Landforms found in the upper course of a river are;
- River capture or piracy
- Waterfall
- Gorge
- V-shaped valley

(b) Characteristics of an OX-bow lake
- It is a feature of the lower course of a river
- It is also known as cut-offs or bayous
- It is found at the concave bank of a river
Mode of formation
In the lower course of a river, a meander becomes very much pronounced. The outside bend or concave bank is so rapidly eroded that the river becomes almost a complete circle. There will come a time when the river cuts through the narrow neck of the loop, abandoning an ox-bow lake or Mortlake (meaning dead lake). The river degenerates into a swamp through subsequent floods that may silt up the lake. It becomes marshy, and eventually dries up


Diagram of an Ox-bow lake

(a) Types of mountains
- Block Mountain
- Fold mountain
- Volcanic mountain
- Residual mountain

(b) Importance of mountains to man
- It serves as a centre of tourist attraction e.g. Mount Kilimanjaro
- Sources of rivers e.g. river Niger from Fouta Djallon highland
- Formation of rainfall e.g. relief rainfall
- Source of raw materials for industries e.g. Coal, Gold, Tin
- For transhumance

(c) Problems caused by mountains
- Barriers to the construction of transportation facilities e.g roads
- They occupy good land which can be used for agriculture
- They promote soil erosion

(a) Definition of Climate
Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time, usually about 35years.

(b) Climatic belts recognized by the Greek system of classification
The belts or zones are Torrid, Frigid, and Temperate zone
Torrid Zone: It is found within the tropics. This zone is very hot and has high temperatures throughout the year.
Temperate zone: This is found between the torrid and frigid zone. It has mild or moderate temperatures and has seasonal contrasts in temperature
Frigid zone: This is found in the polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic region). It is generally cold with low temperatures throughout the year.

(c) Reasons why Kopper’s system of climate classification is the most widely accepted
- It is very simple to understand
- It is objective in nature
- It is commonly used in educational institutions
- It uses only one parameter for classification i.e temperature

(a) Environmental hazards are disasters caused by nature or man which pose a serious danger or risk to the lives and properties of people in their environment.

(b) Examples of environmental hazards;
- Soil erosion
- Flooding
- Drought
- Deforestation
- Desert encroachment

(c) Ways of preventing desert encroachment;
- Afforestation: Planting of trees
- Irrigation: Artificial application of water to encourage the growth of vegetation
- Cover cropping: Legumes planting reduces desert encroachment
- Legislation against bush burning
- Controlled tree felling
- Rotational grazing
- Environmental education

(a) Features of coastal erosion;
- Capes and bays
- Cliffs and wave-cut platforms
- Caves, arch, stack, and stump
- Geos and gloups

(b) (i) Characteristics of a beach
It is made up of sands and gravels loosened from the land which are moved by waves and deposited along the shore.

(ii) Mode of formation of a beach
The dominant form of the constructive work of the sea is the beach. The eroded materials are transported along the shore in several distinct ways. The long-short drift which comes obliquely to the coast carries the material along the shore in the direction of the dominant wind. At the same time, the backwash removes part of the material seawards along the bed of the sea and deposits it on the off-shore terrace and even beyond. Finer materials such as silt and mud are deposited in the shallow waters of a sheltered coast


Diagram of a beach

(a) Commodities exported from my country;
- Cocoa
- Crude oil
- Tin and columbite
- Palm oil
- Rubber
- Cotton

(b) Reasons for the low volume of trade among West African countries;
- Low level of technology
- High tariff and trade restrictions
- Inadequate capital
- Low level of savings
- Political instability
- Poor quality of goods

(c) Ways of improving trade among West African countries;
- Improvement of technology in west African
- Regulation of trade barriers and removal of tariff
- Provision of adequate capital
- Increase in salaries and wages
- Encourage of stable government policies
- Improvement in the quality of produce.

(a)(i) Death rate: This is the rate at which people die per thousand in a country. It is measured in persons per thousand
(ii) Population explosion: This is the rapid increase in the population of a place over a period of time.

(b) Factors that influence death rate in tropical Africa;
- Poverty
- Natural disasters
- Illiteracy
- Health care services
- Conflicts
- Family planning

(c) Effects of a growing population in tropical Africa;
- Poor waste management
- Migration for greener opportunities
- High cost of living
- Traffic congestion
- Easy spread of disease
- Inadequate housing
- Pressure on social amenities

(a) Factors to be considered in the location of an industry:
- Availability of Labour
- Availability of raw materials
- Availability of capital
- Political stability
- Availability of power supply
- Availability of good transport network

(b) Benefits of industrialization:
- It helps in the diversification of the economy
- Source of foreign exchange
- Increase in Gross National product
- Employment opportunities
- Provision of funds for educational institutions
- Development of infrastructural facilities

(a) Map of Nigeria showing its climate zones

(b) Characteristics of the wet season in Nigeria:
- High temperature
- Heavy rainfall
- High relative humidity
- Rainfall accompanied by thunderstorm

(c) Cash crops grown during the wet seasons in Nigeria:
- Maize
- Cotton
- Cashew
- Cocoa
- Kolanut

(a) Problems of agricultural development in Nigeria:
- Outbreak of pest and disease
- Inadequate storage facilities
- Inadequate capital
- Inadequate transport facilities
- Poor land tenure system
- Preference for foreign produce
- Soil erosion

(b) Solutions to problems of agricultural development in Nigeria:
- Use of disease control measures
- Provision of adequate storage facilities
- Provision of loan facility
- Improvement of transport network
- Restrictions on importation

(a)  Map of Nigeria showing its vegetation zones

(b) The trees found in the forest zone of Nigeria:
- Iroko
- Obeche
- Mahogany
- Tick

(c) Contributions of forest vegetation to economic development in Nigeria:
- Sources of fuel wood for cooking
- Sources of raw materials for industries
- Tourist attractions
- Provision of wildlife
- Source of foreign exchange
- Employment opportunities e.g lumbering